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Full text of "Wesleyan delegate takings : or, Short sketches of personal and intellectual character as exhibited in the Wesleyan delegate meeting, held in Albion Street Chapel, London, on the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th March, 1850 : together with an exposition and defence of the resolutions passed at that meeting"

School of Theology J 




AD MAJOREM 




THEOLOGICAL LIBRARY 

Thnrsfield Smith Collection, No. 




Vl^s.iui 



^ 



WESLEYAN 

DELEGATE TAKINGS. 



WESLEYAN ^ ^ Sr 

DELEGATE TAKINGS: 

OR SHORT SKETCHES 

OF 

PEESONAL AND INTELLECTUAL 

CHARACTER, 



AS EXHIBITED IN THE WESLEYAN DELEGATE MEETING, 
HELD IN ALBION STREET CHAPEL, LONDON. 

On the 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th March, 1850. 



BY SOME OF THEM. 



TOGETHER WITH AN 



EXPOSITION AND DEFENCE 



OF THE 



RESOLUTIONS, PASSED AT THAT MEETING. 



MANCHESTER : 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THOMAS JOHNSON. 

LONDON ; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL AND CO. 

1850. 






ENTERED AT STATIONERS HALL. 



Microfilmed 
SOLINET/ASERL PROJECT 



Ves /a/ 



INTRODUCTION. 



It can be no matter of surprise to the religious 
public to see, issuing from the press, a work, 
bearing the character of that now presented to 
the reader. It would have been rather matter 
of surprise, if no notice had been taken of the 
parties composing the late delegate meeting, 
as that would have been indicative of a spirit of 
supineness, and a non-appreciation -of merit, 
which might have been prejudicial to the inter- 
ests of the reform movement. To rescue the 
late meeting of delegates from such a fate, and 
to give to the public at large, — and through 
them, to hand down to subsequent generations, 
— a faithful portraiture of the men, who, from 
many circuits in the Connexion, represented 
the interests of the societies, are the objects 



vi INTRODUCTION. 

the Authors of the present work have in view ; 
and their hope is, that the public will appreciate 
their labours by countenancing their production. 
In order to prepare the reader for the perusal 
of the following pages, it will be necessary to 
give a condensed history of the origin of the 
present reform movement in the Wesleyan 
body ; and of the causes which led to so great 
an aggregate gathering of office-bearers within 
her communion, as that to which this volume 
relates. 

Circumstances — unprecedented in the history 
of the Wesleyan Church — issuing in the un- 
righteous, unscriptural, and arbitrary expulsion 
of the Kevs. James Everett, Samuel Dunn, 
and William Griffith, Jun,, — without charge, 
without accuser, without evidence, and without 
a trial — occurring in Manchester at the Con- 
ference of 1849, were the first causes of the 
present movement. 

In the years 1844, 1845, and 1846, there ap- 
peared certain publications called "Fly Sheets," 
reflecting severely upon the persons constituting 
the executive of Methodism, and charging them 
with wasteful extravagance in the disbursement 



INTRODUCTION. vii 

of its funds ; excessive partiality in the appoint- 
ment of the preachers to sinecure offices and 
emolument; promoting a spirit of Localiza- 
tion ; squatting themselves down on the seat 
of power, and pecuniary advantage, in the 
Metropolis of the Empire, to the neglect of 
pastoral duty and pulpit ministrations ; burying 
their talents, superseding their sacred call to 
the Itinerancy, and — by constant engagement in 
pecuniary matters — creating in themselves a 
spirit of Secularization, prejudicial to personal 
piety, connexional prosperity, and the sacred 
duties of the ministry. These were some of the 
charges set forth in the '* Fly Sheets," which, 
together with the general one of despotic au- 
thority exercised over the preachers by a certain 
" clique," or body of men who, though self- 
elected, had formed themselves into an arbitrary 
and overbearing legislature. 

As might naturally have been anticipated, the 
publications in question were not welcome vis- 
itors : as they proved startling to the public from 
their boldness of tone, and the alarming disclo- 
sures which they made. There is one feature, 
however, connected with the first appearance of 



vlii INTRODUCTION. 

those pamphlets — be they true or be they false — 
which is in their favour, and which should have 
prevented much of the odium and contempt 
sought to be heaped upon them and their 
authors ; and that is, their first circulation being 
confined, almost exclusively, to the Wesleyan 
ministry. The ministers being the parties most 
interested in the published allegations, and, at 
the same time, the nominal representatives of 
the people — whose interests as a connexion 
generally, and as societies in particular, they 
were expected scrupulously to protect and 
extend — it was hoped by thus confining the first 
issue to them, that on the full disclosure of the 
evils said to be in existence, they would imme- 
diately make suitable inquiry, with a view to 
some remedial measures being immediately 
introduced. 

"We say that this one feature in those sheets, 
— their being confined to the ministry, — goes to 
prove that the authors, — be they who they may, 
— had no sinister or wicked design, either in 
ensuring their own interests, or, (as has been 
laid to their charge) seeking the overthrow of 
Wesleyan Methodism^ Had their design been 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

the former, they most certainly took the wrong 
means to accomplish it ; for in such a case, 
policy would have dictated the going with the 
stream, — the sacrificing of principle, and the 
seeking to become allied to the ruling powers ; 
the private discovery of the most vulnerable 
points in the citadel of the executive ; the flat- 
tering of those already open to adulation ; and 
the banding of themselves with the " clique" 
with whose evil doings they had become ac- 
quainted. Had their design been the latter, — 
the seeking of the overthrow of Methodism, — it 
would have been more in keeping with their 
motives, to have made a bold and direct attack 
upon her constitution and people ; and publicly, 
and at once, to have divulged all they knew, and 
not privately to have circulated, among the 
perpetrators and abettors of the supposed evils, 
the information of which they were so fully in 
possession. From two to three years passed 
away, and no notice whatever, — in the way of 
strict enquiry into, or proposed remedy of, the 
alleged evils, — was taken. Seeing this (and 
having previously intimated, that such a course 
would be adopted, if the same disregard and 



X INTRODUCTION. 

obstinacy were persisted in,) the authors in 
question, communicated to the Wesleyan Com- 
munity, and to the public generally, the sub- 
stance of their discoveries, in order that the 
societies — no longer ignorant of the wasteful 
expenditure, and tyrannical domination of the 
*' clique" — might take those steps, which cir- 
cumstances might dictate, and wisdom prescribe. 
Publicity being thus given to the allegations 
contained in those celebrated "sheets" — than 
which, since the days of "Junius," nothing has 
created so great a commotion in the public mind; 
— the rage of the Conference party was roused, 
and in their wrath, they determined to take 
revenge upon the presumed authors. Having no 
definite clue, or hold upon the suspected parties, 
the ruling few determined to adopt the " Test" 
system, having precedents for that in the cele- 
brated " Test and Corporation Acts" and in the 
mode of transacting business in the Spanish and 
Roman Inquisitions. For the carrying out of 
this inquisitorial scheme, its promoters found a 
willing and fitting instrument in the person of 
the Rev. George Osborn, who, for the zealous 
and prominent part he took in the affair, has 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

gained for himself unenvied notoriety, and lasting 
contempt. 

In the year 1847, at the Liverpool Conference, 
a form of declaration was first introduced, when 
the unconstrained signature of each minister 
was solicited; but afterwards,— the signatures not 
coming in so rapidly as was expected, — a more 
compulsory method was adopted. The docu- 
ment submitted ran thus : " We, the undersigned, 
agree to declare that we regard with indig- 
nation and abhorrence the anonymous attacks 
on the motives and character of our Brethren 
that have recently appeared in certain clan- 
destine publications ; that we have never 
intentionally communicated with the authors of 
those publications with a view to afford infor- 
mation and assistance ; and that we will not 
allow their wicked slanders to detract from the 
esteem and confidence we feel towards those 
against whom such attacks were directed." 

To this document some twenty or thirty 
ministers refused to append their names, giving 
various reasons for that refusal ; amongst the 
recusants were the Revs. James Everett, 
Samuel Dunn, aad Williajn Grifiith, jun., whose 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

reasons for not signing the ** test" Mrere ; — that 
it was an attempt to establish an Inquisition in 
the Wesleyan Conference, to which they would 
not be consenting parties ; — that it infringed 
upon the civil rights of Englishmen thus to force 
them, — if guilty, — to criminate themselves; — 
that if the Conference had any charge against 
them, they were prepared to stand their trial 
at its bar ; but that they would never submit to 
be forced, in any way, to sanction unconstitu- 
tional and anti-Scriptural proceedings. For this 
refusal, they were expelled, — "excommunicated 
from the society ; prohibited entering a Wes- 
leyan pulpit, or approaching the Lord's table in 
a Wesleyan Chapel, and were suddenly deprived 
of their income, and cast afloat upon the wide 
world." One feature of these proceedings will 
ever disgrace the canonical records, in their 
handing down to posterity the doings of the 
memorable Conference of 1849, and that is, the 
^'dlipahle partiality shown to some, equal to the 
expelled in obstinately refusing to sign the 
Inquisitorial test, and — as far as evidence was 
produced to the contrary — equally guilty of 
participation in the authorship of the " Fly 



INTRODUCTION. xiu 

Sheets" with the ejected ministers themselves. 
Some of the non-signers were merely repri- 
manded from the Presidential chair ; others 
were deposed from the superintendency of a 
Circuit (in most cases rather a favour than a 
punishment), whilst the Rev. Gentlemen before 
named, were turned adrift upon the wide world, 
— a sentence unequal and unfair, considering 
that others were alike guilty of alleged contu- 
macy^ in not answering the interrogatories 
proposed. 

But not to enlarge too much upon this subject 
— lest we burthen the attention of the reader — 
we proceed to observe that these unprecedented 
doings, and the slumbering fears entertained of 
the truth of the allegations contained in the 
*' Fly Sheets," prepared the minds of the people 
to scrutinize the powers and doings of the Con- 
ference — as to the tremendous and absolute 
sway they had over the people. The irresponsi- 
ble trust reposed in the ministers with respect to 
all Connexional funds, and the shameful defalca- 
tions of one of the Rev. Treasurers had ren- 
dered prompt investigation imperative ; but 
above all, the determined stand the Conference 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

made, in neglecting to answer the charges of 
wasteful extravagance in other departments of 
expenditure, and their alleged partiality and des- 
potic power, required determined action. These 
things opened the eyes of the people, and 
caused them to look narrowly into the consti- 
tution of their laws, executive polity, and the 
tendencies of Wesleyan discipline. The result 
was, the further they went into the matter, — the 
deeper their search into the long hidden myste- 
ries of their system as at present conducted — 
the more they were convinced of the truth of 
the charges made of extravagance and partiality ; 
of the total loss of the liberties of the peo- 
ple ; and that they were fast verging to an 
ecclesiastical oligarchy, second to none in 
Christendom. As men, as christians, as lovers 
of the constitution of original Methodism, the 
body of reformers had no alternative but to 
lift up their voices against such usurpation, 
by the convening of a great aggregate meeting 
of delegates, to whom they entrusted the powers 
to demand redress, — the restoration of their 
forfeited privileges, and also a return to Eng- 
lish and New Testament principles : and more- 



INTRODUCTION. xt 

over to request the Conference to put the polity 
of the Wesley an Connexion upon such a foun- 
dation, as eflfectually to give the death-blow to 
despotism, and ensure in perpetuity, the rights 
and liberties of the societies. 

These were the objects the Delegates had in 
view, on their assembling on the 12th, 13th, 
14th and loth of March, 1850, in Albion-street 
Chapel, Moorgate, London. The results which 
must follow that meeting are yet to be known. 
The good or the evil, that must inevitably 
ensue, in yet amongst the secrets of the future ; 
but by Heaven's blessing, those deliberations, 
though scorned by some, may prove seminal 
of peace and liberty, for which our ancestors 
so nobly struggled and bled. 

We have thus given a very imperfect outline 
of the history of the present Wesleyan Reform 
Movement, the furtherance of which brought 
together in London the subjects of the following 
sketches. These introductory remarks we 
thought to be absolutely necessary, lest, per- 
adventure, this book should fall into the hands 
of parties not conversant with the circumstances 
in dispute, though — considering the unparalleled 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

notoriety given to them by the British press — 
such a thing is very improbable. 

As before stated, the following sketches were 
undertaken, in order that the Methodist people 
generally, might have a knowledge of the men, 
who, in the late delegate meeting represented 
the liberal portion of the societies. Those 
delegates,being necessarily little known — except 
in their own immediate neighbourhoods — we 
have thouo^ht it " meet and risrht and our bounden 
duty," — so far as we possibly could from our 
contracted knowledge of the men — to give to 
the Methodist Churches a portraiture of the 
personal and intellectual character of some of 
the most prominent, in order that those churches 
may be enabled to form a due estimate of their 
worth ; but it does not necessarily follow, that the 
man and the subject he advocates, are identified. 
It must not be presumed that in the discovery 
of any defect in the physical, intellectual, or 
even moral constitution of any delegate herein 
sketched, that the reform movement, or the 
principles advocated, are necessarily mixed up 
with that defect. No : whatever defects may be 
discoverable, or noticed in these sketches, they 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

will not, in the eyes of a discerning and religious 
public, for one moment be supposed to de- 
teriorate the essential principles of Methodistic 
reform. Be it understood, — once for all — that 
with private character we have nothing to do ; 
in that particular we unhesitatingly affirm, that 
the four hundred delegates under notice are 
inferior to none in the Connexion. They were 
selected men, and true to God, and to the 
Christian religion; and we question iHheir equals 
are to be found in the ranks of " Conference 
Methodism." But, as before stated, with private 
character we shall have little to do in the fol- 
lowing pages ; the subjects of the present tak- 
ings need not such pens as ours to publish their 
christian " status," that, is already known and 
suitably appreciated. It is with them as men, — 
as intellectual men, — that we have to do ; and 
with the sketching of their personal and intellec- 
tual features. This delineation cannot be accom- 
plished in any way but the one we are now at- 
tempting. It is true, correct reports have been 
given of their several speeches, and of the circuits 
they represented; and it maybe possible to gather 
some indistinct notion of their varied actions, 



ii 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

and powers of mind from those published 
speeches ; but the knowledge thus obtained 
must be very limited, and subject to great and 
serious mistakes. 

To form a true notion of personal character, 
that character must be seen, and marked in its 
varied phases and stages of development ; every 
gesture, and feature noted ; every motion watch- 
ed, and then transmitted to paper, in order to 
give any thing like a fair portraiture to the 
public ; so that when this is done, any one read- 
ing those speeches which were made in the 
meeting may be able to form something like 
accurate conceptions of the men by whom they 
were delivered. To bring about this interesting 
object is the design of the present work, and 
we flatter ourselves if after a candid perusal, 
the reader of these sketches will enquire from 
any delegate who was regularly present at the 
meeting described, whether or not we have 
given, — so far as the circumstances of the case 
would permit, — a just and faithful portraiture of 
the men as they appeared, in Albion-street 
Chapel, he will find the answer as satisfactory as 
our most sanguine wishes could expect. 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

We sliall, however, very likely incur the 
inward anger, — if not the open censure, of some 
— for the bold, and as it may be thought, unspar- 
ing manner, in which we have depicted certain 
shades and colourings of character ; but about 
such censures we are not at all solicitous. When 
we undertook the duty, — the task, of delineating 
personal and intellectual features, we said, well ; 
we must be faithful ; we must not impose 
upon the public by daubing with artificial graces, 
those persons or properties, which nature has left 
without adornment. That would be a violation 
of honour. Neither must we on the other hand 
try to conceal defects, whether personal or 
mental — that, would be equally unjust and 
blameable, — but we must, as far as we are capa- 
ble, give a true likeness of our subjects, — irres- 
pective of fear, favour, or frown. 

The portrait painter, when sitting down to his 
easel, and drawing the outlines, or transmitting to 
canvass the features and shades of a person placed 
before him, would be indignantly repudiated 
if, instead of giving a correct, and genuine 
likeness, he should stretch his utmost skill of 
fancy— as to the hliss-ideal — to make the painting 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

as beautiful or as fascinating as possible : so 
the intellectual portrait-taker, must be true to 
the original, how distasteful soever that truth may- 
be — or his work will be worthless, if not treated 
as an imposition. 

We have in the following pages aimed at truth- 
fulness, and if, by that we should have given pain 
to any, we shall feel sorry, but as faithful men, 
we could not avoid it. Were it necessary we 
could make apologies : but we beg most respect- 
fully to suggest, whether instead of forcing us 
to this humiliating task, it would not be much 
better to attempt an improvement in the 
originals, hy the removal of those unfavourable 
shades, and unpleasing colourings which attach 
to them, that on our next visit to the Metro- 
polis, or other city where they may be assem- 
bled, we may discover an improvement ; and in 
our second edition, or next volume, report pro- 
gress ; and also expunge from our takings offen- 
sive features, by substituting, hues and tints, — 
pretty, glowing and attractive ; a task we should 
most glidly undertake. 

In the mean time, let not the public, or the 
Wesleyan Conference, depreciate the characters 
herein set forth. They are not despis^e men. 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

We challenge the Conference itself to pick out 
from their own immediate priesthood, — whose 
advantages have been, greater, and whose facili- 
ties for mental culture more numerous — four 
hundred men their equals. This is a bold 
challenge ; but we are not afraid to repeat it. In 
that assembly, — illegal though it maj have been 
according to Conference law— disaffected though 
its members may have been to the arbitrary im- 
posts of Conference Methodism — there were 
present on that occasion hearts and heads, loyal 
to the vital, and primitive principles and con- 
stitution of " John Wesley Methodism," and 
which were well stored with secular knowledge, 
and with the saving and experimental doctrines of 
the Gospel of the Son op God. Let not the calum- 
niators of the *' Wesleyan Delegates" seek to 
pour upon them so contemptuously their slan- 
ders, they heed them not, those slanders will 
rebound; the accusation — of being "Enemies to 
Methodism" — will fall upon those who are its 
real enemies by being opposed to all progress 
and reform ; and who are the supporters of a 
system, despotic, exclusive, and anti-Scriptural. 
One word on the probable success of the pre- 
sent movement, and we will no longer trespass 

2 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

on the patience of the reader. The dye is cast ! 
Despotism must fall!! Before the will and de- 
mands of an insulted people, it must crumble to 
dust. The struggle may be much more protracted 
than most apprehend ; it may be more arduous, 
— more severe; Well, be it so ; perhaps its being 
prolonged may tend to strengthen our numerical 
forces. The people may not yet, enmasse, be 
prepared for the onslaught, or for the success 
that must ultimately follow. Time in this strug- 
gle, we think, may turn to our advantage. In- 
formation must be widely spread. The scatter- 
ing of light in the minds of thousands, yet uncon- 
scious of the fearful usurpation and domination 
of the Conference, must not be neglected. Let 
these things be done, and the efflux of time will 
be a blessing, and a sure source of success. 

To the Conference we would give one word 
of advice, although we fear it will be disre- 
garded. Still we shall have done our duty by 
offering it. We would say listen to the Scriptural 
demands of the people. The Lord is among them. 
The Shepherd of Israel is their guide ; in op- 
posing them, you oppose Hili, and fearful will 
be the issue if you are found " fighting against 
God." 



r-^. 



WESLEYAX 
DELEGATE TAKINGS, 

• No. 1. 

MR. ROBERT * * *. ,* 

LOCAL PREACHER, LOUGHBOROUGH. 

In walking along- the delegate portrait gallery, we 
gaze upon one painting of more than ordinary attrac- 
tion. Not that it is placed in a very prominent 
position, or that it stands out in hold reluf—va. order 
to attract the attention of connoisseurs in the fine 
arts : — No, it is placed in the distance — apart from the 
great and more dazzling, as if courting solitude, or a 
quiet retreat in some nook or corner. An ordinary 
observer would perhaps pass it by as no rare specimen 
of art ; being not sufficiently attractive for the gene> 
ality of sight seers, having few external embellish- 
ments, which the world deems valuable, such as 
masculine proportions, or noble bearing. 



24 



In this case its simplicity, — its unadorned, retiring-, 
chaste, happy, peaceful character, — gives to it its 
beauty, its loveliness. It stands unrivalled among* 
the multitude that surrounds it, as the most artless, 
simple, yet beautiful of all the specimens that enrich 
the gallery of moral excellencies. It is small in its 
dimensions, but of passing sweetness. Just gaze upon 
it — it will bear your scrutiny — and the more you 
examine into its shades, and tints, and heavenly fea- 
tures, the more will you admire, until you stand 
entranced and enchained. The subject represented 
by this picture is a man whom seventy six winters 
have passed over ; and now bearing age and ap- 
proaching decrepitude, is supported and guarded by the 
power of the great Being who first called him forth, 
and who, in the course of years, and circumstances — 
as they have passed away, — has been adding grace to 
grace, — shade after shade, until this old disciple is 
well nigh perfected ; age only developing a more 
lovely mellowness of some of his choicest traits. 

The features of the man now sitting are small and 
elongated, and rather of the acute kind ; the com- 
plexion fair, but interspersed with beautiful tints of 
vermiUon, scattered pleasingly on the cheek, remind- 
ing one of health, about to take a reluctant adieu. 
The nose Is of the Roman mould, the eyes grey, the 
forehead well proportioned, but not striking ; the 
head balded by the storms of lapsing years ; the per- 



26 



son low and spare, denoting former agility ; and the 
general appearance, that of a man who has gone 
through a long life with honour to himself, and 
benefit to the world. But the countenance ! — the 
general expresion of the features ! — here consists the 
beauty, the charm of our subject. It is as if some 
angel from heaven had dipped his pencil in a sea of 
light, and transmitted some of its bright beams to the 
human countenance. It is as if indwelling Godhead, — 
the secret of Christ in the heart, regenerating, and 
beautifying the soul, — could not be confined to 
the internal, or spiritual man, but must flow forth in 
visible halos of glory. It reminded us of JESUS on the 
mount of Transfiguration, " when his face shone as 
the sun and his raiment was white and glistering." 
Yes ! you gaze with delight on the countenance, and 
as you gaze, thoughts of heaven ; of the glorified 
humanity of the saints ; of the re-union of the soul 
with the body, when it will be " fashioned like unto 
Christ's glorious body," pass cheeringly through 
your mind. 

In every lineament of the face there is portrayed hea- 
ven's own image. A calm : — peaceful as a sea of 
glass, pervades the whole, — lighted up ever and anon 
by a smile of holy joy ; joy arising from the consi- 
deration of the nearness of his journey's end, and from 
a sensible preparation for the place where he shall 
** see Jesus," and " behold Him as he is." The whole 



26 



person partakes of the same tranquil, peaceful habi- 
tude. When speaking", his sentiments flow~ easily 
like the rippling murmurs of some meandering stream, 
undisturbed by the slightest elementary strife : all is 
tranquil ! all is peace ! 

The reader will be enabled to draw for himself a 
faint idea of the happy and heavenly dispositions of 
this gentleman by a few quotations from a speech he 
delivered at the delegate meeting. During its delivery 
the whole four hundred delegates were all eye, all 
ear ; a deathlike silence pervaded the assembly, as 
the saint of many years melodiously poured forth the 
sentiments of his heart. That speech personified 
the speaker, it embodied his mental and moral excellen- 
cies, and developed his noble and sanctified character. 
When reading it, think you see before you a little 
old man, whose countenance is lighted up by the 
rays of indwelling Deity ; his soul on the verge of 
heaven, standing on its environs, and on the very eve 
of stepping into the promised land ; you will then be 
able to appreciate the sentiments we are about to quote : 
— " I have been" said he " a member of the Methodist 
Society now for fifty-two years. I have been a Local 
Preacher for forty-five years. I have long supported 
the funds of the Society. I have given up two of 
my children to the ministry. One is alive at Quebec ; 
the other lies buried on the shores of Western Africa. 
Some of you have read his biography. His name was 



27 



William Rowland * * * * He was bis mother's 
Benjamin. The morning he left his father's house he 
left a bit of poetry after him, in which he said that, 
in Africa 



" He would draw his latest breath. 



Aud in his Jesus' service meet his death." 

It was a very heart-rending circumstance I can assure 
you, it was a long time before we could get over it, 
when we learned that he had died from the inclemenc)'' 
of the climate, and that he was buried far away from 
his father's home. It is said to be a great and ho- 
nourable thing to die on the field of battle. I covet no 
such honour for ni}^ children : But I thought it all 
honour that a son of mine should live a missionary's 
life, die a missionary's death, and be buried in a 
missionary's grave. 

" And now my christian friends, as we are about to 
go home, let us take with us I beseech you, a good 
and christian spirit. * Let all bitterness and wrath, 
and clamour, and evil speaking be put away from 
you.' Whatever spirit our opponents may shew to 
us, let us endeavour to shew a Christian and kind 
spirit, to them ; and we may do this with all the firm- 
ness of the reformers of Methodism. Brethren, we 
long for a perfect church. We are thankful for the 
communion of saints below. We are looking for our 
inheritanL'c in the pure and spotless church above. 



28 



To that church we are tending-, and for it may the 
grace of God prepare us ! * There remaineth a rest 
for the people of God/ under the unclouded sunshine 
of the Redeemer's love. Brethren, I bid you an 
affectionate farewell." 



29 



No. II. 

Mr. ***** 
circuit steward and trustee, forest of dean. 

In this subject there is nothing particularly attractive, 
either to the sculptor or portrait painter. 

In the presentation of the likeness now in hand we 
hold it not forth as any thing uncommon ; only as it 
presents traits and shades of character differing from 
others — it forms a relief and gives a contrast — and 
therefore we place it in the delegate gallery. The 
gentleman now before us is in stature tall — being about 
six feet high — strongly built, bony and muscular ; his 
features elongated ; nose Roman ; his eyes are dark, 
small, steady, and indicative of decision and great 
firmness. From the dark complexion, the traces of 
small pox ravages, and the approach to heaviness 
which characterise the facial appearance of our Forest 
subject, we should say his youth was the companion 



30 



of affliction and severe trial : his hair is black, plenti- 
ful, rough and bristling : his features rather stem, 
betokening- uncompromising rectitude and unbending 
firmness. His voice is gruff, as if the inhabitant of 
some wilderness, or the lonesome " Forest of Dean" 
from which he at the first sprang, and whose breezes 
which he has inhaled, had imparted health to his frame, 
and power to his vocal organs : he is no orator but, is 
rather comparable to a desert rambler, whose natural 
tones of voice are in keeping with the hollow blasts 
of the storm, while ranging freely over the unob- 
structed landscape. 

This gentleman bears the characteristics of a 
straightforward, open, frank, and honest man ; there 
is about him no display, no pride. It is true there 
is a manly bearing in his gait and general deportment, 
but it is natural, — and the result of physical causes, — 
being the fruit of a vigorous flow of health, giving 
muscular energy to the whole of his massive system. 

In this subject we see human nature developing 
her own powers ; standing heroically upon her own 
constitutional basis ; and exhibiting a creation of 
high and noble physical capabilities ; he is apparently 
as free from pride in its disgusting characters, as he 
is unencumbered with the excessive pressure of intel- 
lectual properties : he does not appear to be easily 
excited, but seems to be of a phlegmatic tempera- 
ment ; oratorical harrangues, therefore, are not the 



31 



instruments by which to work upon his feelings, nor 
are impassioned appeals, the means to be employed 
for the reaching of his heart, or his pocket. As the 
gentleman under notice has a high sense of moral agency 
— the calls of duty and responsibility to God, are more 
likely, to succeed. Matter of fact subjects, are those 
things in ■which he appears to deal : and only con- 
vince him of the necessity or duty of stretching out 
the hand of charity. to a helpless wretch, or a pliilan- 
throphic cause, and down goes the hand at once into 
the pocket : and vice versa ; apprise him of the want 
of economy, in any system or society to which he 
has been in the habit of subscribing, and the pocket is 
immediately buttoned up ; or, as he whimsically says, 
" he will employ his tailor to make him a suit of 
clothes without pockets." There is one characteristic of 
this gentleman constan tly uppermost, and which is natu- 
ral to him, it being his birthright ; and that is an aristo- 
cratic air, an independent, — but not a haughty bearing. 
This in him, is not unbecoming, it fits him, it is part 
of himself, and therefore, — it being natural, is 
becoming ; but although this aristocratic manner is 
manifest in all he does, it does not in the least de- 
stroy affability nor courteous demeanour towards any 
who approach or converse with him. In conversa- 
tion he is plain, familiar, and kind ; has no self-con- 
ceitedness nor lore of flattery ; the one to him is as 
loathsome, as the other would be diigusting. He is 



82 



liberal in the distribution of his wealth, " having just 
completed a little chapel, ■which is one of the neatest 
you ever saw ;" and has " spent a little fortune in 
supporting the cause of Methodism." His character 
may be summed up in a few words : he is honest, 
frank, conscientious in all he does ; and being a true 
Christian, is free from guile, and is an honour to th« 
church. 



33 



Ko. ni. 
jyijj^ ********* 

LEADER, DARWEN. BLACKBURN CIRCUIT. 

It will not require the pencil of a Raphael, or the 
penetration of a metaphysical Locke, to sketch the 
features or to gage the mental calibre of this gentleman. 
The business is easy. It is something analogous to 
the task of the landscape painter who has to execute 
a drawing of no interest, — to represent a merely level 
plain, now and then interspersed with a lofty poplar, 
or towering pine, but which is unchequered by either 
hill or dale, rivulet or stream ; where there is nothing to 
engage, nor to fix the attention, except it be the general 
barrenness of the soil, or the uninteresting monotonous- 
ness of the prospect. We are partly in the position 
of the portrait painter, who having a subject before 
hiiB, of square easy features, the lineaments of Avhich 
have little to engage and less to perplex, finds no 



34 



difficulty in transferino^ to canvass the fac simile of 
the original ; sucli a task is easy, excepting only that 
the general absence of intelligence in one sense 
creates a slight difficulty. Where the artist requires 
no shades nor colouring it is easy to portray. It is 
the artistic blending of colours, that gives difficulty 
to the painter, and adds value to his production ; in . 
the general absence of expression you cannot give 
interest to your protege, or please the tastes of 
connoisseurs in the fine arts. But, however, we will 
attempt the task ; and if we fail, our endeavours must 
be taken for what they are worth. 

The subject of the present sketch is in stature tall ; 
in person inclined to be corpulent, with a constitution 
evidently fitted to undergo great labour and to endure 
much fatigue. The facial features are in general 
pleasing, especially at a distance ; the eyes are small 
and grey ; the nose rather aquiline ; the complexion 
ruddy ; and the general expression of countenance 
betokens the want of early education, and a mind 
incompetent to great things. There is frequently a 
smile upon the lips, — not however, natural, but 
evidently forced. The crying sin of affiictation is 
prominently set forth in this constrained smile, as 
well as in the speeches, the gesticulation, and habits 
of our subject; which affection spoils all he does. As 
the name indicates, and more especially if we might 
be permitted to change a vowel in the last syllable, 



85 



there is a love of " show," — ^yes — " open-show," and 
this is at once his forte, and his defect. Bold in manner 
and sanguine in temperament, he is fearless and 
undaunted in all he attempts ; nay, it is usual for him 
when in company, and while' conversing upon difficult 
projects, requiring for their accomplishment the 
putting forth [of great courage, — as for instance the 
" Wesleyan Reform Movement" — to say : " I fear the 
face of no man. I never did. Fear is not mixed up 
in my constitution. I never knew what fear was." 
There is, however, something in this courage, or 
absence of fear, or whatever else you please to call it, 
that is far from being pleasing to the observer. It is 
not necessary to constitute a man courageous, that 
he should be inflated with self-esteem ; or that he 
should knit his brows ; or compress his lips ; or lower 
the chin into the bosom, as a' certain bird does when 
roused by the teasings of the bystanders ; for true 
courage to discover its dignity there is no need of 
these grotesque and ridiculous trappings. Affectation 
is the crying fault of this gemtlcman ; but time and 
effort might remove the evil, if the attempt were made ; 
and one reason why we make these strictures, is to 
discover to him this failing, in the hope that he may 
try to rectify it. If he be admonished our labour will 
be rewarded. After all, the subject of the present 
sketch, is not to be despised. Amid many defects 
there are some valuable properties, although they do 



36 



not sparkle nor dazzle the eyes ; those good properties, 
however, not being- prominent — but hidden like pearls 
at the bottom of the sea — have to be dived for ; and 
thus when brought out and observed are tlie more 
valuable, because of the trouble they have cost in the 
discovery. 

In the subject of the present sketch there are the 
genuine marks of sincerity ; of noble-heartedness and 
benignity, which are no mean properties in any man. 
Religion has achieved wonders in accomphshing what 
she has accomplished in his case. Had he been all 
his life long left to the world, to the natural impulses 
of his own heart, it is not difficult to conjecture what 
would have been his habits of life and objects of 
pursuit : but religion has completely transformed the 
man, having turned his mind to pursuits of an elevat- 
ing tendency. Not that she has in this case produced 
a first rate specimen of mental power, that has been 
impossible, as the necessary elements are not there. 
From the rude, rough, sand-stone quarrj', you cannot 
bring forth the beauties, and the elegance, of the fine 
wrought marble ; nor expect the gritty surface of the 
one to equal the smoothness and polish of the other. 
The structure, the figure, the proportions in both in- 
stances of art may be there, but not the value 
nor the beauty. Grace in him has not failed in 
securing a trophy ; she is doing her work, and 
doing it well — witk the material upon which she 



.37 



lias to work — but she will not, in all cases, give 
new headSf where she makes new hearts. For twenty 
years, our friend before us has been a member of 
the Wesleyan Society ; supporting it by pecuniary 
assistance, by untiring zeal, by arduous labours, 
and by an unimpeachable life. In his political and 
ecclesiastical views he is exceedingly liberal, and 
also extremely averse to the Conference Law of 1835. 
At the time that law was enacted he was a reformer, 
though he still remained with the old body, hoping, 
that by the providence of God, he should see eflPected 
in its polity, the changes he has so long advocated. 
He is ardently attached to Wesleyan doctrines, and 
loves the cause of the Redeemer. He is now zealously 
engaged in promoting the interests of the Reform 
movement. One fear there is, lest he should overrun 
himself, as is too frequently the case with minds 
possessed of more ardour of temperament, than of 
intellectual ballast. 



38 



No. IV, 
Mr. JOSEPH * * ^ =^ * * 

LOCAL PREACHER, HOLT, NORFOLK. 

In our further progress in the delegate gallery, we 
come into contact with one little of stature, who — 
although probably not accustomed, like Zaccheus of 
old, to climb up a sycamore tree, to see all passers by, 
— is sometimes necessitated to stand on a chair in 
order to be seen by the company he addresses. By 
profession he is an auctioneer, and no doubt the 
attentive observer would be led to discover in the cha- 
racteristics, or rather in the gestures of this gentleman, 
the striking analogy there is between a man's pro- 
fession and his habitudes. Did the reader never 
notice this when listening to the harangues of modem 
orators ? If he has not, let him call to mind the 
reminiscences of character whose action on the plat- 
form, and profession in life are known to him, and 



39 



the analogy will soon appear. Listen to the inflated 
sentiments of yonder speaker, — mark his gestures. 
With hands clenched and in immediate contact, 
forming a semi-circle before him, he suddenly draws 
them from each other, as a son of St. Crispin does the 
" taching-end" from the sole of a shoe, when going 
through the process of manufacture. So, the oratorical 
tailor. His right hand is sure to be flirted upwards, 
as if in the act of transmitting the thread through 
the two parts of a garment, he was in the act of 
sewing together. These are true characteristics ; and 
as early habits and professions often leave something 
indelibly fixed in their subjects, by noticing the 
various gestures put forth, the attentive observer ma}', 
in many cases, easily discover the speakers' avocations 
in life. It is eminently so with the subject of the 
present sketch. At the end of an argument or of a 
philippic, he lets fall his hand, as if in the act of 
knocking down the subject of his discourse to the 
highest bidder. In him you see the bending of the 
back ; the declination of the head ; the uplifted and 
falling hand ; and also the professionally executed 
knock upon the most proximate object. This most 
interesting and excellent man would constitute a 
perfect character, if, during his public addresses, as 
well as in his professional engagements, his manual 
evolutions had the accompaniment of the hammer ! 



40 



The physiological aspect of this gentleman is pleasing 
and domesticated. He appears to be one who loves a 
place on the cheerful hearth, in the centre of the 
family circle, or in the midst of convivial friends. He 
likes the joke, and the witticism, he himself being full 
of humour and innocent irony. The face is round and 
plump ; complexion healthy ; eyes grey ; lips well 
formed. About the mouth there is a constant smile, 
which even in his most fiery moments, or when 
roused by a sense of injury, either to himself or the 
church of which he forms a part, cannot be con- 
cealed, for it still plays there ; it may lose some 
degree of its force, but still, it is conspicuous. The 
head, like the body, is in constant motion, rapid 
turnings taking place when speaking, as though it 
were specially charged to keep time with the inces- 
sant and quick movements of the eye ; and when any 
particular subject is engaging his attention, these head- 
whirls are performed with astonishing rapidity. The 
eye is not penetrating, it is not fixed enough for that ; 
but it beams forth with indications of genuine sincerity 
and goodness, which in him evidently betokens much of 
paternal love. His enunciation is not the clearest, he 
having an impediment, producing a kind of gurgling 
in the throat, or half suppression of voice during the 
delivery of some parts of a sentence, especially when 
that sentence is composed of words difficult of pro- 
nunciation. To remedy this, as far as possible, he has 



41 



sometimes to throw out his lips, as if the" ideas 
chmg there, and were reluctant to part from the 
parents which labour to give them birth. This defect 
is, very likely, the result of physical mal-formation in 
the construction of the orifice of the trachea — being 
too large — and emitting more air than is necessary 
for the clear and free enunciation of sentences : but 
be that as it may, his utterance is not so defective as 
to spoil his oratorical addresses, or put to pain his 
hearers by either enlisting their sympathies or exciting 
their distaste ; nor does it appear to be a source of 
much difficulty to himself. He likes sometimes to 
play a little with the sarcastic ; but for the very life 
of him, he cannot make any body believe that, behind 
his occasional sarcasm, he really possesses any bitter 
or malevolent disposition ; for though he may try to 
summon on to his own features the muscular action 
of seeming anger or contempt, in order — as he thinks 
— effectively to give pungency to his raillery, he 
cannot accomplish it ; it is mere mimicry — and that 
not well played off" — for the conspicuousness of his 
own good nature and generous disposition, fully 
eclipse all beside, and makes even the attempt to 
appear angry, perfectly ridiculous. It is, as if you had 
clothed a sheep in the skin of a wolf, and while 
forgetting to conceal its innocent head, }^ou suffer it 
to peep forth from under the guise. Nature never 
fitted him to play at the sarcastic, he may tryj he 



42 



may take the knife of satire and cut right and left, 
with all the force and power of which he is the 
master, but much of the pain, that would otherwise 
be produced, is lost in the super-abounding of his 
amiable dispositions, in which, as into a healing balm, 
that knife has been dipped, and rendered harmless/ 

He is also evidently a man of tender feelings, as well 
as of exceeding and well cultivated vivacity ; and 
although on receiving an injury, he feels keenly, yet 
he has not the power to resent it ; he may in the 
excitement of the moment try to do so, but he would 
sooner weep in solitude and silence, and [bemoan 
what he cannot undo, than indulge in the slightest 
appearance of desire for revenge. We may be wrong, 
as our acquaintance with him has been but short, yet 
we think, we have discovered that this is his true 
character. 

In speaking, his delivery is quick, his thoughts 
flowing easily ; he has great collectedness of mind, 
which gives him considerable self-command, which 
no doubt his station in society, and vocation as an 
auctioneer, have tended no little to promote. Intel- 
lectually he is far above mediocrity, though, perhaps, 
not developing any extraordinary powers of mind ; 
would be puzzled with metaphysics, or the occult 
sciences, but yet, he has considerable strength of 
understanding, and quickness of apprehension upon 
all subjects of ordinary moment. It may with just- 



43 



ness be said, he is not an every day man ; his equal 
we do not often see. To know him is to love him ; 
to be acquainted with him, an honour and a privilege. 
With him you may hold social and happy converse 
for hours together without being weary, or grieving 
over a waste of time. Happy would it be if society, 
nay, if the christian church itself, were made up of 
such men ! He is an honour to the one, and a benefit 
and an example to the other. We should like to 
live within the precincts of his domicile, that we 
might often engage in friendly chat, and be a member 
of the same methodist class, to receive from his lips 
christian counsels, and wise encouragements. We 
have gone to greater lengths than we at first intended, 
but the value of the subject of this sketch must be 
our apology for prolixity. 



44 



KO. V. 
Mr. W. H. C. * * * 
holt, norfolk 






The phrenological cast, were one to be taken from 
the head of this gentleman, would be as singular^as 
his real features are remarkable ; we, therefore, confess 
our consciousness of the difficulty attendant on our 
attempt at a faithful delineation. 

He is spare in person ; long boned and slender ; 
being betwixt an ordinary man and one perfectly 
dispossessed of all fleshy substance ; so much so, that 
when his long arm performs its peculiar evolutions in 
the air — which is customary when our friend is 
engaged in delivering platform orations — it is like the 
swinging of a windmill sail, and when stretched forth, 
it is like the arm of a lamp post, on which the ladder 
of the ascending illuminator has to rest. To reduce 
that arm — the right one — to a state of repose, when 



45 



its owner is engaged in debate, would be a task 
equally as difficult to perform, as to metamorphose 
his present spare person into the size and shape of 
Daniel Lambert, of bulky renown. 

The motions peculiar to this gentleman, are a 
bending of the person, as if in the constant habit of 
bowing to his audience — denoting good breeding and 
genteel manners — and which is the result of circum- 
stances, for he being a gentleman of the legal profes- 
sion, and also a magistrate, he mixes with the more 
respectable and educated parts of society. The left 
hand is often seen perambulating the breeches pocket, 
or else forming a triangle by the fingers being placed 
upon the hip ; while all the time the other is labour- 
ing away and doing all the work, — a task most 
unequal and monopolizing. The features of this 
gentleman are of the stiflP, reserved, or distant kind ; 
denoting well sustained dignity, and conscious 
importance. When sitting, the arms are often crossed 
upon the chest, and the head bent downwards, as if 
the mind was engaged in solving some legal diffi- 
culty, or on the look-out for a flaw in an indictment. 
There is nothing in his manner bordering on acerbity 
or moroseness : but rather the apparent abstraction 
of the mind from things in general, and an intense 
attention to some particular subject. This abstracted- 
ness gives to the mind a tinge of the recluse, and the 
apparent desire to be free from all unnecessary 



46 



interruption. The eye-brows stand out prominently, 
having large quantities of hair growing upon them ; 
the eye-lids are sore, and their lashes, as a conse- 
quence, very short and spare. Eyes, black and small, 
or at any rate seemingly so : but this may arise — from 
the unpleasantness, and perhaps pain, in opening the 
lid — from their constant soreness : he speaks slowly 
and with difficulty of enunciation, as if there were 
not a free and sufficient 'quantum of air flowing from 
the lungs to keep up the vocal apparatus in anything 
like due efficiency ; his voice is not melodious, but 
rough ; and in accent indicating a descent from the 
sister country, (but of the place of his birth we know 
nothing) ; there is also in his speaking, and especially 
on the termination of a sentence, a kind of lisp, 
together with a protuberance of the upper lip, 
giving it a kind of pouchy appearance. The head 
is small, but the forehead good ; the cheek bones 
stand out prominently ; complexion rather dark ; his 
hair once a dark brown, but now mixed with grey ; 
in a word, the general appearance of the present 
subject is that of a man of severe and constant study. 
He is no orator, but possessed of good parts, and 
evinces a clear understanding ; he is more argumen- 
tative than eloquent ; discursive rather than decla- 
matory. There is, however, no bombast, no show ; 
he strives to carry conviction by his arguments. 



47 



rather than to put forth efforts to please. No doubt 
he is a shrewd man and a good lawyer. A Wesleyan 
of twenty-five years standing, and treasurer of the 
children's fund for the district in which he lives, and 
is also a trustee for chapel property. 



48 



No. VI. 

Mr. JOHN * - * * 

PROPRIETOR OF THE 






Middle sized man ; rather stifly built, and inclined 
to be corpulent ; complexion dark, but of an unhealthy 
hue ; eyes black ; features round ; hair as dark as a 
raven ; posseses but little mind, and is a poor speaker. 
When engaged in the delirery of public addresses, he 
should have a prompter near him, lest unluckily he 
be unable to proceed. When speaking, he has no 
nervous timidity, although men of much more mind 
— when standing before the same audience — have 
trembled in every limb ; but this gentleman stands 
there apparently unmoved. We once heard him 
speak on a certain occasion, when he came to a dead 
stand, and, had it not been that the notes of distress 
were heard in time, he would have " foundered." We 
would respectfully advise this gentleman not to put 
to sea again, except in the presence of a skilful pilot. 



49 



No. TO. 

Mr. JAMES * - * =i^ * ^- * * 

LOCAL PREACHER, SECOND LONDON CIRCUIT. 

Nature is prolific in her resources in making provi- 
sion for the wants of man : but not more prolific than 
diversified in her bestowments, as may be seen even 
in the same species of animal or vegetable life. A 
sameness — an exact resemblance and perfect equality 
— is not to be found in the whole creation of God. 
No two stars glittering in the spangled heavens, or 
two planets studding the imperial skies-and directing 
the mariner in his tract through the ocean — are of the 
same brilliancy, distance from the sun, or alike in their 
revolutionary speed. All differ. No two blades of grass, 
studding the meadow with their emerald green ; no 
two shades of the rose, perfuming the air with its sweet- 
ness ; no two tints of the violet, or touches of the 
tulip, are exactly alike ; all differ more or less ; nor 



.50 



are any two human faces amongst the ten hundred 
millions that are upon the earth, in all points similar ; 
equally diversified, are the intellects, the mental 
constitutions, and the social aptitudes of men. In 
passing through the Wesleyan delegate meeting this 
fact is evident to every observer. 

Placed near the entrance to that assembly, as if 
courting the attention of all, maybe seen a somewhat 
rare specimen of nature ; rare for many reasons — for 
the singular physiological developments — for the high 
esteem he entertains of himself, which is conspicuous 
in all he says and does — for the nice delicacy he 
evinces for mere phraseology in the wording of reso- 
lutions and the formation of sentences ; in his being 
particular even to a fault ; for in order to succeed in 
chanofinof a word, not essential in itself to be intro- 
duced, — he will throw a whole meeting into com- 
motion. He is one of those men who everlastingly 
obstruct the course of business, by forcing upon the 
attention of others some peculiar views of their own, 
or by making objections to mere terms of expression. 

Not accustomed himself perhaps, to business habits, 
he forgets that others are ; and thus, though 
unthinkingly, he annoys, and burthens his brethren 
with unnecessary discussion. After all, he is a deep 
thinking man, and one competent to grapple with an 
abstruse or metaphysical subject, as he posseses a clear 
and penetrating judgment. He is not to be deceived 



51 



by the external decorations of a thing; he can sec 
through all mere philippics, or clap-trap harangues, 
and in a masterly style will probe to the bottom all 
merely empty and delusive theories. He has a clear 
understanding into, and a comprehensive view of, the 
bearings of the various subjects he handles, and — 
what perhaps is not a very good thing — he knows it ; 
he feels he is a man of mind, and we fear, lays too 
much stress and importance on his acquirements and 
capabilities. 

In person he is spare, and of the middle size. His 
features are long, and inclined to be ghastly ; there 
is mixed up with the paleness of the countenance, a 
kind of haggard, sombre, or half melancholy aspect, 
as if torn and distressed by deep and constant think- 
ing. The nose is sharp and long, the eyes small and 
penetrating ; the head bald and digniJBed ; the lips 
thin, and the mouth rather large ; and the cheek-bones 
prominent. The voice is full, but not mellow ; the 
gestures few and becoming ; he delivers his 
sentiments with the confidence of a man who 
knows and feels he is right ; being fearless, bold, 
and uncompromising, he will abide by his views 
and opinions — be the amount of opposition what it 
may — until conviction, arising from conclusive argu- 
ment, turns him from his purpose. It would be foolish 
to talk of expediency to this gentleman, if that 
expediency were sought at the sacrifice of principle ; 



52 



as he is not the man to be wrought upon by mere 
sentimentaUsm. Truth and firmness are the principles 
he advocates. Duty and no compromise. But we 
still retain our first impression — noted in [the former 
part of this sketch, — that he thinks well of himself, 
and having such an opinion, he is not sufficiently 
careful to conceal it. Others may and do, think 
highly of him ; but when they discover that he him- 
self, perhaps, a little outstrips them in their estimation 
of his qualities, a laugh, at his expense, is sometimes 
promoted, and the disposition to indulge in expres- 
sions of praise is at once checked ; he is however well 
fitted to bear any little sarcasm ; and every thing like 
raillery would be totally lost upon him, for he could 
make returns equally severe. He is a local preacher, 
and has been a Wesleyan twenty-four years. 



63 



XO. Till. 
'Mr. GEORGE ********* 

TRUSTEE AND LOCAL PREACHER, HUDDERSFIELD. 

A gentleman between sixty and seventy years of age ; 
has been a member of the Wesleyan Society forty- 
two years. He is tall, strongly built, and lusty. 
Large featured, prominent nose, small quick eye, 
whiskerless, and nearly bald. Seems constantly to 
be labouring under the influence of strong feelings, 
■which are evidenced by the incesj^ant restlessness of 
the body, which in many cases is the index to the 
mind. If his habit of speaking is to be our guide, he 
is possessed of a choleric temperament, for it does not 
seem possible for him to deliver his sentiments without 
manifesting much of the animal sensibilities. When 
engaged in the labour of speaking, — for, that physical 
labour it most evidently is, is shown by the profuse 
perspiration that streams from his brow, — there is the 
4 



54 



mechanical and constant bending of the back, such as 
we should suppose a polished Frenchman exhibits on 
court-day occasions, or while addressing the President 
at a levee. His dehvery, for a man of his years, is 
rather rapid, and combines much of the forcible with 
the declamatory ; hence, he regularly deals largely 
in the impassioned and the inflated. All this is 
natural to him ; his thoughts being more from the 
impulse of the heart, than anything like the matured 
and well digested emanations of a cultivated under- 
standing ; and as he must give instant expression to 
his cogitations, they come forth fresh and full, in all 
their naked roughness and unaffected sincerity ; for 
in this case, " out of the abundance of the heart, 
the mouth speaketh." There is in the gentleman 
now under notice, no studied method of delivery ; he 
has no pre-arranged formula or determined plan, 
but adopts a spontaneous and straight-forward method 
of disclosing his views ; hence the before mentioned 
mechanical movements, are not put forth as intended 
embellishments, but as the natural produce of the 
generous and enthusiastic feelings of his soul. 

When roused by concurring circumstances he can 
put forth more than ordinary effort, and can be 
severely sarcastic ; but while he is levelling deadly 
blows at his antagonists, he invariably runs for refuge 
and for weapons, to the word of God, from whose 
armory being equiped, and by whose panoply being 



56 



defended, he bids defiance to all who oppose hira^ 
He loves to talk of religious experience and enjoy- 
ment ; these he must mix up with all he says and 
does — partly converting every occasion, how public 
soever it may be, into a Love-feast — thereby discover- 
ing . that experimental religion, with him, is the 
principle thing, as it seems to be interwoven into the 
events of his every day life. He has a noble soul, and 
a clear head ; not that the latter possesses any 
remarkable mental power ; but what he advocates 
he understands, and what he means he conveys clearly 
to the minds of his auditors. He is not to be tampered 
with by those who deal in duplicity, but must be met 
by honesty and manly integrity, were he to discover 
any one dealing in commodities of a deceptive 
character he would bring down upon him the fire of an 
artillery, too heavy to be easily borne. 



5G 



No. IX. 

Mr. J. F. * * '' * * - 

LOCAL PRACHER, MANCHESTER. 

Some years back a Wesleyan missionary in the 
West Indies, not that he was sent there by the 
Wesleyan Conference, but residing on one of the 
islands in a commercial capacity, and being a member 
of the Methodist society, was appointed to sustain the 
office of minister — and which office he filled for some 
years — but it being proposed to establish a general 
superintendency over the missions, he resigned his 
ministry, stating, as his reason, that he was opposed 
to the principles and establishment of an Episcopacy 
in the Wesleyan connexion. He is now, we believe, 
following the business of commission agent, in the 
city of Manchester. 

The gentleman now sitting to us, is of Scotch 
descent ; of the middle size ; round shouldered ; 



67 



squarely built ; full featured ; light complexioned ; full 
round eye, in which you may perceive the lurkings of 
suspicion or jealousy towards any body, and every 
body, with whom he comes into contact. The nose 
is puggy, and the orifice large. In speaking, there is 
a singular extension of the mouth — the muscles of 
the cheeks being acted upon, as when in the act of 
laughing — which imparts to the lips a tightness, and 
to the mouth a largeness, not natural to them. It is 
thus that his enunciation is shackled, as he leaves to 
the throat what the lips ought to do. It is impossible 
for a public speaker to deliver his sentiments with any 
degree of pleasure or profit to his hearers, when his 
lips are confined to one certain position, with no 
other motion than that of mechanically opening and 
shutting, like the instinctive movements of the jaws of 
a fish when it is taking in water. Clearly to enunciate, 
and to give suitable tone and efiect to words and 
sentences — the lips must be suffered to have full play, 
and should not be tied down to one certain mode of 
action. There is often also, in the gentleman before us, 
a kind of partial lisp in the utterance of some words 
and sentences, attributable, no doubt, to the foremen- 
tioned circumstance — for the air necessary to be 
gathered into a kind of focus, for the right transmission 
of certain sounds — is completely left to flow out at 
pleasure, without any regard to syllabic length, or 
t)f accentual admeasurement. A good speaker he will 



58 



never make, in as much as he is destitute of the 
delivery, the gesticulation, and some other quahfica- 
tion, essential to an effective or popular orator. 
Should even the subject matter of his discourse be so 
prepared as to partake of the most intellectual and 
elaborate character, it would be spoiled as it proceeded 
from his lips, and would lose its effect from the 
manner of its being dealt out. His understanding is 
not the most clear or comprehensive, as he requires 
long and deep cogitation, before he fully comprehends 
the bearings of a subject, and, even after much thought, 
he seems to labour under the greatest difl&culty while 
giving expression to his own meaning. Judging from 
his speech, as delivered at the delegate meeting, and 
reported in the " Wesleyan Times," he does not suf- 
ficiently weigh the bearings of the subject he discusses, 
so as to give consistency and harmony to his remarks : 
— ^for instance, he advocates the full enjoyment of 
Scriptural privileges and religious rights, for the 
people ; yet, strange to say, cannot support a resolu- 
tion demanding justice to the victims of anti- 
Scriptural proceedings, because, making it a matter of 
expediency, he is afraid to give " insult to the 
Conference," he fears it would "injure the reform move- 
ment," " because it would not be right to pass a law 
having a retrospective operation, that would undo acts 
done under law," and, *' because he did not think 
they could get it." We say, that from his man- 



59 



ner of treating this subject, we think there wants 
clearness of understanding-, in order to maintain that 
degree of consistency, which is necessary to be 
observed in the opinions and proceedings of public 
men. But the matter of the expelled ministers, and 
the arguments brought forward against their restora- 
tion, being entered into at length in the defence of the 
resolutions passed at the delegate meeting, we shall 
forego any further observations on that subject in this 
place. The subject of the present sketch has been the 
victim of despotism, having been expelled from the 
church — of which he has long been an ornament — for 
taking part with the Reformers, and for attending the 
delegate meeting. Where such expulsions will end, 
time alone can tell ; it is, however, a pity, that men who 
have braved inhospitable climates, and have spent 
their j^outhful energies in promoting the cause of 
Methodism, should be expelled from her communion 
for attempting to base her constitution and polity on 
the New Testament Scriptures, in order that the liberal 
and enUghtened principles of the age may be suitably 
consulted. If the Wesleyan Methodist societies will 
suffer the four hundred delegates to be expelled, 
without protesting against such an incursion on their 
liberties, it will betoken a. prostration of manliness, 
and a want of brotherly love, ominous of a moral 
paralysis, fearful to contemplate. But this will not 
be ; the people have not forgotten their duty — and 



00 



when the time arrives, and the opportunity serves, so 
as to make their interference efficient — they will come 
to the rescue of their brethren, from the crushing and 
destructive power of aKfeolutism. May they be suc- 
cessful in their enterprize ! 



61 



No. X. 
Mr. FRANCIS =!=***>!<*>;=* 

LOCAL PREACHER, SIXTH LONDON CIRCUIT. 

Of Swiss extraction, and we should say a Swiss bj- 
birth, early habits, and training ; but of this we 
possess no certain information. His personal appear- 
ance is repulsive, being of the ascetic and unsocial 
kind. The face is very long, especially from the eye- 
brows to the chin, not much room being occupied by 
the forehead. The eyes are small and dark. The 
nose long and prominent, sharp at its terminus, 
and quite in keeping with the length of the face. 
There is a pouch upon the lip, which, when speaking, 
is much increased. 

When engaged in oratorical harangues, the eyelids 
have more work than ordinary, being brought into 
constant play by their incessant opening and shutting. 
The tone of speech is rough, having something like 



02 



the Irish accent ; and we should certainly have assigned 
his origin to Ireland had we not known the contrary 
to be the case. His action is violent, and his speeches 
declamatory. When on the platform, he forgets his 
audience, and, in speaking, addresses the chairman, at 
the expense of his hearers. He is tall in stature 
a man of some mind, but rather of the dull and slow 
order, requiring stimulants to bring out his mental 
powers, or rouse to action his native talent. He is a 
good and zealous local preacher. 



63 



Ko. XL 

Mr. THOMAS * * * * 

ONE OF THE SECRETARIES TO THE LONDON CORRESPONDING 
COMMITTEE. 

In personal appearance pleasing and attractive ; very 
light complexioned ; light hair and light eyes, "which 
possess little motion, as they rest calmly and content- 
edly in their sockets. The forehead is good. He is 
in all the vigour of manhood, and appears to have 
suffered little from the adversities of life, or the 
changing scenes of time ; if he has suffered much, he 
must have borne it heroically, or have been possessed 
of an iron constitution capable of powerful resistance. 
He is of a calm temperament ; of a quiet and inoffen- 
sive disposition, and very likely of retiring habits. 
Not having heard him debate or speak upon any 
subject of interest, but judging merely from the 
manner of his reading of the reports; we are restricted 
in our remarks, and are necessarily unable to discover 



64 



the tendencies of his mind ; but from the imperfect 
view we took of his cranium, and physiological 
developements, we should say there must be something 
of value in him. Perhaps on some future occasion 
we may be enabled to prosecute our enquiry, and 
give to the public the result of our researches. 



65 



Ko. Xll. 

Mr. JOHN * * * ^K « * * ^k 

EDITOR OF THE =!^ >i= -i-' * * * =i= * :}: ^; >ic >K H: 

We cannot say that we altogether admire the ar- 
rangement of the subjects whose portraits are to be 
placed in the delegate gallery. We think, greater effect 
might have been produced by the selecting of more 
appropriate places for some of them whence the^rays 
of light falling in certain angles, would much better have 
given the shade, or true outline of figure, and expres- 
sion of countenance. 

For instance, had the little figure of Colman, in all 
his smiling loveliness and natural simplicity, been put 
along side the subject of the present sketch, who 
towers in his giant heights, " like Alps on Alps," the 
contrast would have given interest to the character of 
each. The powers of contrast are great, and the dis- 
coveries made thereby often important. It is some- 



66 



times by the force of opposites, that the relative 
powers and qualities of thinsfs are more fully ascer- 
tained. Judicious classification of objects, whether 
natural, physical, intellectual or moral, is always a 
desideratum, and we cannot but grieve that the col- 
lection, in this exhibition of moral and mental worth, 
has not been more scientifically arranged. 

The subject of the present sketch, is the editor of a 
weekly newspaper ; a paper that has incurred the 
odium and hatred of the Wesleyan Conference, 
because its editor has been bold and uncompromising 
in his advocacy of liberal principles in the polity of 
the Methodist church, and in the unflinching ex- 
posure of the doings of clerical despotism. With 
the relative — real or assumed — merits of that Journal 
we have, at present, nothing to do ; our business is 
with its Editor, whom circumstances — in our progress 
through the delegate gallery — ^have thrown in our way. 
In giving the reader a portraiture of this gentleman, 
we shall first notice his personal appearance. He is 
in stature, tall, reaching to the height of six feet, if not 
more ; has a long pointed nose, everlastingly burthened 
with a pair of spectacles, behind which are seen 
two dark eyes, glaring forth as if some spectre from 
the tomb had appeared, to reveal some horrid con- 
spiracy against their owner. When speaking, the 
eyelids are extended to their utmost limits, causing a 
kind of horizontal knitting of the brow, and forming 



67 



there, some three or four deep "wrinkles or trenches. 
The forehead is not bold nor prominent, but conical 
and retreating ; the complexion is sallow, and in ap- 
pearance sickly ; the hair dark and tufted on the 
top of the forehead ; the voice bold and effective ; 
the gestures few, being an occasional sway of the 
hand, and the throwing back of the head, and the 
steady.andismayed glare on his audience. The general 
aspect of the features indicates care and much study ; 
determined perseverence in what he undertakes, but 
not much caution. His zeal, it is said, outbalances his 
prudence in some of the measures he introduces, and 
in the sentiments he puts forth. As to his competency 
to be the editor of a public journal, and that a journal 
of such vast importance as the one he conducts, — 
embracing the general interests of such a community 
as the Wesleyan Methodists — we do not presume to 
give an opinion, not being conversant with the qualifi- 
cations necessary for such a vocation. One thing we 
will say, that of all trusts imposed upon the journals 
of the day, none can possibly have greater responsi- 
bilities attaching to it, than has the one of which the 
subject of the present sketch is the editor. In the 
present excited state of the Connexion, when the 
feelings of numbers are roused by their personal suffer- 
ings in the cause of reform, and the sufferings of 
others connected with them by consanguinity, or 
religious intercourse, it is to be supposed that many 



«8 



com nunications "will be forwarded for its columns. 
This extensive correspondence, must make selection 
and arrangement for the press, offices requiring great 
discrimination and judgment, in order to be the means 
of successfully helping on the reform movement. But 
not to digress :~intellectually, our editor is an example 
worthy of the imitation of others, in the untiring 
industry and perseverance, with which he has laboured 
to cultivate and store his mind, which does not appear 
to have been, originally, strong or creative ; his great 
fund of knowledge, therefore, is the result of arduous 
training, constant culture, and toil ; showing how 
a mind, which in its original Constitution, may be 
comparatively insignificant, may by certain processes 
and systematic movements, become an object of 
respect and attention. 

There are, however, traits in this gentleman, which 
some people are pleased to criticise, but they are 
the consequences of past successes, while engaged 
in raising himself to his present honourable position. 
Having laboured to make himself a man of mind, and 
succeeded, he is said to be a little infected with self- 
esteem, and leans too much to his own views and 
opinions, irrespective of those entertained by others, 
who are his seniors in years, and, perhaps, superiors in 
knowledge. We have heard it said that his memory 
is rather treacherous, and that he is apt to forget past 
friendships and favours ; but of this we know little. 



69 



and should hope it is unfounded. It is impossible for 
Editors of public journals to steer clear of reproach 
from either friends or foes. Determined opposition 
from foes on the one hand, and disappointed hopes of 
friends on the other, are sure to make the path of those 
■who conduct public journals any thing but pleasant. 
Our friend was for many years a local preacher in 
the Wesleyan Connexion, discharging the duties of 
that office "with much credit and fidelity, so much so, 
that the Rev. William M. Bunting, some short time 
ago, passed a eulogiura upon his moral and upright 
character ; and if " enemies" — we write it accomo- 
datedly — being the judges thus compliment, the en- 
comium must indeed be genuine, and deserved. 

He was at an early period of the reform move- 
ment, made the victim of Conference tyranny, by being 
expelled from the Society, partly for being the editor 
of the journal before named, and partly for his aiding 
and abetting the reformers of Methodism. 



70 



XIIL 
Mr. JOSEPH * * * '' * - * * * • 

LOCAL PREACHER, THIRD LONDON CIRCUIT. 

The subject of tlie present sketch is one worthy of a 
first rate artist, and we confess our incompetency to 
undertake the drawing, so as to do any thing like 
justice to the original. Of conveying to the mind of 
the reader any just conception of the features, with 
all their peculiarly rich tints, shades and colouring, we 
utterly despair. Had we consulted our own feelings 
— and not the benefit and pleasure of the public — we 
ishould have sufiered this gentleman to shme conspicu- 
ously in his own immediate circle, without attempting 
to give a public description'of him ; but we must make 
the essay, how defective soever may be the efibrt, to 
produce a likeness. 

He is in stature low, and inclined to be plump- 
being stifily built — and is of erect attitude. The head, 



71 



for the dimensions of the body, is large and rests calmly 
and Tvith great dignity upon a short, and stifEsh neck ; 
the facial aspect is strikingly placid and graceful ; a 
halo of loveliness, and tranquility beams forth in every 
expression of countenance, and irradiates every fea- 
ture. Around the lips especially, — which are thin, 
and delicately formed for melodious speaking — there 
is a perpetual play of suavity ; now curling for some 
distance round the whole mouth, and then sitting 
upon the lips alone ; now striking out in perambula- 
tions upon the vicinity of the dimpled cheek, as if 
sporting with the gazers on, and ridiculing their more 
cold and blank visages ; and anon courting scrutiny, 
as if to excite imitation. The lips and the chin are 
in strict keeping. The latter is somewhat hollow, but 
delicately and beautifully sculptured and is tapered ofT 
from the jaw bone with the nicest precision and the 
fairest proportions. The nose — long and thin — is 
rather pointed, and forms one regular inclined plain, 
from the hollow to its terminus. The forehead bold,, 
prominent, and even, unfiirrowed by a single wrinkle. 
The top of the head is bald and shining ; the eyes 
black and small ; complexion light, but rather sickly. 
The gestures of this gentleman are few. The 
body is sustained in an even temperature, and an easy 
position ; no violent contortions take place ; no bend- 
ing of the back, or other grotesque evolutions. He 
frequently, in his appeals, or when concluding an 



72 



arjrument, turns towards the ciiairman ; but this is 
done without pomp or perade, he, always, laying more 
stress on the arguments advanced, than on the pre- 
sumed consent of the chairman. The right hand— 
excepting the tongue — is generally the only organ in 
motion ; this — which is mostly clenched and raised 
upwards, is — when his mind is fired by more than 
ordinary zeal — thrown downwards with a great degree 
of force. The enunciation is clear, forcible, and effec- 
tive. It is mellow, rich, and charming ; sentences fall 
in symphonies, like the playing zephyrs around some 
quiet and delighful shade. The voice is often plain- 
tive, soothing, and refreshingly sweet. When listening 
to it, we thought of the sweet tones of a Jew's-harp, 
when struck by the fingers of one perfect in its use, 
while standing on the banks of some murmuring 
rivulet ; its sweet cadences falling upon the ear, and 
then echoed plaintively from the surrounding hills, 
and by its music, soothing life's cares, and calming its 
tempests. We thought of Judea, and thence our 
minds wandered to the banks of the rivers of Babylon, 
where the heirs of the former land, sat solitarily and in 
exile. We fancied, we saw the harps suspended from 
the weeping willows, — swinging in the orient breeze, 
— when suddenly taken down on the announcement 
of approaching hberty by the decree of Cyrus, — they 
were struck by the willing fingers of one proficient in 
the art, and when dale and dell became alive to the 



73 



euphonious shouts of heavenly song-. We fancy we see 
some analogy, between the two cases. The Jews were 
enduring exile in Babylon ; their harps tuneless, and 
hanging upon the willows. We are under the 
domination of a haughty hiererarchy, which is tramp- 
ling under foot our dearest liberties. 

The Jews, gazing towards the mountains see the 
approach of messengers bearing the signals of good 
tidings, — the royal decree of liberty,— on the hearing of 
which they strike the once unstrung chords of their long 
silent harps ; we view the arguments advanced, the 
hopes held out, and the consoling sentiments uttered, 
and are encouraged to struggle on for liberty. 

The subject of this sketch possesses views and 
feehngs corresponding with those of the Jews, while 
he seems to live in the anticipation of similar results. 
Perhaps, we may be thought a little enthusiastic, and 
in palliation we beg to say, we would rather be con- 
sidered passionate than stoical ; for we deprecate that 
callousness, over which the voice of the charmer exerts 
no power. Intellectually too, our friend stands well. 
His, is a master mind. With him, ideas are never 
wanting, and, what is more, they are his own, they 
emanate from his own well cultivated understanding. 
He is happily relieved of the necessity of becoming 
a borrower, a mendicant, or a plagiarist ; he has native 
resources at command, and which are always suffi- 
ciently proximate to be made available. 



74 



This cannot be said of every person sketched in 
this little book ; but the gentleman now before us, 
has a stock-in-trade — not the property of consignees, 
whose wares he is wishful to expose, and thus, gain 
for himself credit, by having in possession an exten- 
sive assortment of valuable merchandise, — what he 
exhibits is his own, it having been purchased by his 
own industry and skill. In debate, he is never at a 
loss for argument] wherewith to meet his opponent ; 
with him there is no filching, — no wish to move off, 
no attempt to huddle the matter, but by a blow, 
kindly dealt, or a thrust tenderly employed, he can 
generally gain a conquest. His apprehension of the 
real nature of a subject, is quick and clear. He can 
discover a weakness in the argument of an opponent, 
with a quickness, and a keenness, few can equal, and 
often comes down upon his antagonist, with the 
rapidity of lightning. His memory is good, and seldom 
fails him ; his general delineation is graphic, clear, 
and convincing : he has, by some, been compared to 
Doctor Bunting, in his palmy days ; this, however, 
we leave for others to determine, but we must be 
allowed to say, that in our judgment, a greater man, 
than the subject of the present sketch, did not honour 
the meeting lately held in London. 

It is rather singular that the sons of St. Crispin 
should partake so largely of intellectual qualities. 
How are we to account for it ? Is it the sedentary 



76 



occupation they follow, that gives time and oppor- 
tunity for uninterrupted thought ? Perhaps it is : but 
be the cause what it may, some of the brighest orna- 
ments that ever honoured the world, and benefitted 
society, have had their beginnings at the lapstone ; 
among such persons shine brightly, the late Samuel 
Drew, Dr. Carey, S. Bradburn, &c. &c. 



76 



Ko. XIV. 

Mr. JOHN * * * * 

LEADER AND TRUSTEE, -BRISTOL. 

A STOUT gentleman, but his corpulency, we should 
say, is not by any means the result of epicurean habits, 
but from constitutional tendencies. The complexion 
and features of Mr. '^ * * * do not indicate in him 
any approach to the voluptuary, but rather the 
reverse ; we believe abstinence and moderation are 
virtues more frequently exemplified in him than in 
many others, whose spare and skeleton like appearance, 
might lead a mere novice in physiology to conclude 
that famine ruled the lean, and luxury fed the stout. 
In multitudes of cases such as this, appearances are 
not to be taken as evidence. It is now beginning to 
be acknowledged that simple diet and un-intoxicating 
drinks contribute to the fairness of complexion and 
plumpness of appearance, and the soundness of the 



77 



general health of those who consistently "follow 
nature." It was so thousands of years ago, in the days 
of the prophet Daniel, and his three companions in 
Babylonish exile, " when the king appointed them a 
daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine 
which he drank, so nourishing them three years, that 
at the end thereof they might stand before the king. 
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not 
defile himself with the king's meat, but requested a 
trial of ten days, saying, let them give us pulse to 
eat and water to drink, then let our countenances be 
looked upon before thee, and the countenances of the 
children that eat of the portion of the king's meat, 
and as thou seest, deal with thy servants. And at 
the end of ten days, their countenances appeared 
fairer and fatter in flesh, than all the children which 
did eat the portion of the king's meat." Of course we 
do not know exactly what dishes this gentleman is 
most accustomed to partake of ; whether animal or 
vegetable — of a solid or of a pulse character — but of 
one thing we are sure, that he does not disgrace the 
nutritious nature of the provision ; and those persons 
who have the honour of furnishing his larder will 
nerer have cause to sue for damages arising from 
defamation of character, as to the supply of our friends 
food. Though the physical health of all is important, 
there is a more noble part of man than that which is 
corporeal, and we arc glad to state that the subject 



78 



now under notice, is do more wanting in this respect 
than he is in his physical proportions. Nature, in 
this case at least, has given a corresponding and strik- 
ing union of mental and corporeal magnificence, 
which is not by any means common. This gentleman 
is possessed of mind : enclosed within the huge 
casket, is a gem of no mean intellectual powers ; a 
soul noble in its original capabilities, as well as in the 
successful energies it has subsequently put forth in 
the culture of its faculties, and the acquisition of 
general and useful knowledge. 

The features of this gentleman are simple and easy ; 
his complexion fair ; his head partly bald ; his eyes 
light ; his face plump but not red ; he is far advanced 
in life ; and has been a local preacher in the Metho- 
dist Connexion for twenty-six years. 



79 



No. XV. 

Mr. JOHN *>i^*>i<*^'** 

TRUSTEE, DURHA>f. 

The gentleman now introduced, is the son of a 
Weslej'an Methodist preacher ; who, in his day was 
very popular and useful, being one of the greatest 
ornaments of the church, and ranked amongst the 
most successful ministers of the gospel, that Metho- 
dism can boast, notwithstanding the long list of 
worthies enrolled in its biographical records. Our 
friend, whose ancestry was so noble, is about the 
middle size ; dark complexioned ; long and sharp 
featured ; spare in person, and about fifty years of 
age. The eyes are black and exceedingly restless, 
and while their owner is addressing an assembly they 
roll, first towards one side of the audience, and then 
towards the other, with extreme velocity, and, as 
though nature had designed the whole frame of this 



80 



gentleman to keep " quick time," his head performs 
its evolutions with all the swiftness of a well balanced 
spindle. Sometimes however, when the mind appears 
to be in quest of a new idea, his eyes assume a 
stationery attitude, being fixed in an upward gaze, as 
if looking for some descending help ; and in these 
instances he presents a somewhat ludicrous aspect, 
for all the while, there is the same constant swing of 
the body, and other grotesque exhibitions. 

We think we see him just now before us ; his eyes 
rolling to and fro ; his body first leaning to the right, 
then to the left ; now bent forwards, and bowing like 
a Chinese Mandarin, but with his arms stretched forth 
to their utmost extent — sometimes describing circles 
— now drawing right angles — then straight lines — now 
curves — sometimes one thing, and sometimes another 
— as if determined to give to his audience a practical 
developement of every problem in geometry ; and all 
this is done, not with the calmness of a geometrician, 
nor with the grave dignity of a shrewd scholar of the 
occult sciences, but in an inflated, bombastic, and 
declamatory style, with great difficulty to himself, 
and frequently, at the expense of much pain to his 
hearers. 

Then comes the enunciation. It is far from being 
melodious, it being too quick, and by far too indis- 
tinct. There is too much of a 'jumbling of words, 
and a conglomoration of sentences, ever to make him 



81 



effective as a public speaker. We could do with his 
gestures and impassioned manner, were it not that a 
many of his sentences are lost in the indistinct blend- 
ing of words, irrespective of their proper, full, and 
clear acceptation. It is thus that a good portion of 
his addresses are absolutely lost to most of his hearers, 
at least it was so to us, for although we were 
present on most, if not on all the occasions that he 
spoke in the delegate meeting, and also sat near to 
him all the time, we confess we had to refer to the 
printed reports of his speeches, in order to make our- 
selves acquainted with the sentiments he uttered. 
One cause of this indistinctness, is the overwhelming 
rapidity with which his thoughts flow, and his 
exceediDg anxiety lest he should let any of them slip. 
Having a fertile genius, but especially possessing a 
most luxuriant imagination, he finds it difficult to 
bridle his tongue, or to keep within anything like 
moderation in the speed of his deUvery. It is a 
defect, and a great one, and which is especially felt 
and lamented by his auditors, who have to strain 
every nerve to catch his sentiments, and when they 
haye done their utmost, they invariably lose a great 
portion. He certainly has a fine mind, and one 
which is competent to achieve great things : but 
there requires in him, prudence to check, and skill to 
direct. He is, in a great measure, governed by the 
-impetuosity of his own feelings, they being strong. 



82 



and consequently, exceedingly sensitive ; and as the 
constitution of the mind partakes much of the same 
temperament as that of his body, restraint becomes a 
work almost too difiicult to be performed. In this 
gentleman's case — there being no counteracting 
power within himself — he is necessarily afloat upon 
the waters of constant strife, and if " He of Galilee" 
who walked on the huge billowing waters, and said 
" peace, be still," did not sit at the helm of his heart, 
there is no telling to what his feelings and impetuosity 
would lead him. 

■[yjj.^ ;]; ^ -St *:{;>{: ^ ^- posscsses great powers of 

sarcasm, and we fear, from the before mentioned 
causes, in that he sometimes goes rather too far. 
This is a dangerous weapon in the hands of any 
man, but in the hands of one of strong, choleric tem- 
perament — both of mind and body — it is an instru- 
ment sometimes suicidal, but always dangerous. 

The forte of the present gentleman is evidently to 
dress in beautiful drapery and rainbow colouring, 
both his ideas and sentiments. There is nothing un- 
commonly deep in his lucubrations, but they are of a 
character that is captivating and dazzling. He is not 
the man to enter into the niceties of intricate ques- 
tions, or upon polemic subjects : but rather to adorn, 
— to show off, — to embellish what he introduces. He 
has a mind purely his own, an intellect feeding upon 
its own musings, and living amid its own abundant 



83 



productions. In a mind so constituted there is often 
something of the grand, — the rich, — the varied and 
always pleasint^ly attractive and luminous. Such 
speakers generally please and secure a certain class 
of audiences, because to listen to them is a relief from 
the pressing cares and turmoils of business, a kind of 
tete-a-tete, — a cheerful change. 

This is an age of enthusiasm, as well as sentiment. 
The sensibilities of men in our times are more 
frequently brought into play, and appealed to, than 
were those in the days of our forefathers. In this 
age of wonders, of novelty, and of enterprise, there 
must be something to attract or dazzle ; something 
to please the imagination, as that faculty must have 
something in which it can revel, and on which it can 
luxuriate. This is the feature and the fault of the 
age, ay, and this feature, and this fault, too much 
attach to the church. Let any man conversant with 
the Divines of the last century — the Divines in 
Methodism we mean — refer to some of the early 
numbers of the Arminian, now called the Methodist 
Magazine, and read there some of the noble sermons 
by the fathers of our Connexion, and he will perceive 
what a contrast there is between them, and the fine 
spun silken threads emanating from our " Theological 
Institutions." Then the people had the pure gospel 
in all its simplicity ; the preaching in those days was 
clear, plain, almost as limpid as if it had flowed from 



84 



inspired lips ; it came forth with all the majesty of 
omnipoteut truth, enticing the hearts, and awakening 
the consciences of all who heard it. Now, it is so 
mixed with embellishments, so interwoven with merely 
philosophical sentiment, that it requires a man of 
skill to separate the chaff from the wheat, the husk 
from the kernel. Now, there must be the niceties of 
diction ; elegance of language ; exact and methodical 
arrangement ; elaborate disquisitions ; and all the 
rest of such things, before it can be introduced to the 
christian public ; and when it is introduced, there 
must be the studied style, the punctilios of poUte 
address ; the oratorical motions and manoeuvres, 
before men, accustomed in their early history to the 
lower walks of life, can be considered proper teachers 
of the simple gospel, which things, we fear, too often 
make conceited coxcombs, rather than profound 
divines. 

"Theological Institutions" indeed! what have they 
done for Methodism ? Is the piety of our Societies, 
since their introduction, deeper, or more hallowed, 
or more hallowing ! Have the students from a three 
years incarceration in the jail at Richmond or at Dids- 
bury, received any additional spiritual mindedness, 
from the fine spun webs manufactured in these semi- 
naries, as put forth in the " Plan of Tuition," compre- 
hending English Grammar, Elocution, Geography, 
History, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Che- 



86 



mistry^ Logic, the Philosophi/ of the Miiid, Theologv, 
inclucling the Evidences, Doctrines, Duties and Insti- 
tutiofis of Christianitv, Church Order, and Govern- 
ment, the Pastoral Office and Care, the Elements of 
Biblical Criticism, Archeology, including Hebrew, 
Greel, and Roman Antiquities, the Outlines of 
Ecclesiastical History, Preparations for the Pulpit, 
Composition, and Acceptable Delivery of SermoTis, 
and instructions in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek 
Languages ?" 

What have the teachings of these sciences done 
for the Candidates for the Wesleyan Ministry ? Have 
they made that ministry more acceptable, to say 
nothing of its being more efficient and soul saving ? 
Where are the giants that have sprung from these 
modem schools of the prophets ? Have these colleges 
turned out such men as " Hopper, Walsh, Mather, 
Olivers, G. Storey, Benson, Bradburn, Hare, 
Bramwell, Stoner, Slack, Isaac, Watson, Clarke, 
Mc.Allum, Everett, Dunn, and many others "who 
stand out as ornaments to Methodism, and as lumina- 
ries in the world ? Can the " Theological Institutions" 
boast of creations like those men of renown, who 
through dint of hard study, and self-application, 
pushed themselves into honoured notoriety, while they 
at the same time were the means of bringing multi- 
tudes to Christ? We do not make these remarks 
because we undervalue mental acquirements : no, 
6 



C6 



but because of the inefficiency and non-necessity of 
the system adopted, and the paralysis it puts the 
3"0ungsters into, while going through the process of 
manufacture, when they are seeking to be metamor- 
phosed into new kinds of beings. We have in the 
course of our reading, met with a denomination that 
had two academies ; the one to cool the temperature 
of a student, if he was remarkable for zeal ; and the 
other to quicken him into sprightliness, if he was dull 
or heavy. If these be the objects of the " Wesleyan 
Theological Institutions" they may most likely 
accomplish their end ; but as to this, time alone will 
tell, we have only to say, at present, tht cooling 
system predominates. 



87 



No. XVI. 
Mr. JOHN ***** 

LEADER AND LOCAL PREACHER, CHESTERFIELD. 

A LITTLE slender man, hard featured, and rather 
unpleasant to gaze upon. When first rismg to 
address an assembly, he does not preposses in his 
favour, and consequently will not disappoint his 
audience, if nothing imcommon proceeds from his lips. 
He is no speaker, nature never fitted him for that 
employment. To look over, or prepare a brief, is 
more in unison with his capabilities, and also more in 
keeping with his feelings. He is very nervous, and 
sometimes tremulous, which for a man of his years, 
experience, and station in life — being a lawyer — is 
somewhat singular. His manner of illustration is 
vague, and indistinct ; no weight, nor power attends 
his observations ; there is a difficulty in arriving at 



88 



his meaning, because of his style being so deficient 
in perspicuity, and connection. He belongs to that 
class of speakers, whose discourses will ever bo 
tedious, there being the absence of every qualification 
to render them efiective ; nevertheless we believe him 
to be a very shrewd man, and a good lawyer ; and 
one eminently fitted for the position into which 
Providence has introduced him. But as a public 
speaker, he will never shine. He bears an exemplary 
character, as a man, and a Christian ; a sound 
Wesleyan Methodist : but not a Conference supporter. 



89 



No. XVll. 
Mr. ROBERT *-!<*={<**=!=* 

LEADER, NOTTINGHAM. 

Middle size ; of a sallow complexion : a fixedness of 
tlie eye, tending to a glare ; a lack of suppleness in the 
neck ; plump cheeked ; exceedingly shackled when 
speaking, which arises from two causes, a paucity of 
matter, and an utter incompetency to deliver what he 
has, to any advantage ; is wanting in energy, and in 
the faculty of clearly enunciating his sentiments. He 
will have to make diligent apphcation in studying the 
rules of rhetoric, before he can entrance an audience, 
for whatever might be the amount of knowledge 
possessed by him, he has not, as a public speaker, the 
powers of putting it forth to advantage. 



DO 



No. XVIII. 

Dr. W. '^ * - '-^ * 

trustee, eighth london circuit. 

A little man, far advanced in life ; round featured, 
and light complexioned ; and for a man of his years 
exceedingly hale and agile ; can with difficulty sit 
still, and reminds one of the long sought for object, 
the " perpetual motion." When speaking, the body 
is all action, as if on the point of leading off a qua- 
drille, or about to perform some dexterous feat of 
mechanical skill, or amuse an audience by some 
achievement in legerdemain. He is evidentl}'" a droll 
character, and, we should think, a very cheerful com- 
panion. There is on his face a constant smile, which 
approaches to a kind of half laugh; at the same time 
the eyes are peering forth, as if in quest of adventure, 
or in search of objects upon which to inflict a little 
raillery, or a few sly touches of " friendly" sarcasm ; 
but withal he is a good natured man and a Christian. 



91 



No. XIX. 

Mr. WILLIAM - - '■^- * * * 

LOCAL PREACHER, MANCHESTER. 

The subject of the present sketch is low in stature ; 
of slender make, and of respectable appearance. The 
features inclining to the round, are in appearance 
those of the ascetic. His eyes black, with slow 
movements, and often fixed and glaring ; this is 
especially the case, when our subject is engaged in 
platform or pulpit exercises^; on which occasions he 
seems to have much firmness of purpose. The fore- 
head is good, though it appears larger than it really is, 
in consequence of the baldness of the fore part of the 
head. On his brow there are wrinkles, somewhat 
similar to those referred to in No. xii of these sketches, 
and as we think, produced by the same cause, 
though the gentleman now under notice, does not 
possess the apparent serenity of the one we have 



92 



referred to there ; but there are in the present subject 
indications of fear which produces an inflation of tlie 
blood vessels, especially of those about the temples. 
The complexion is inclined to be pale, and the 
general aspect indicative of laborious thinking. When 
speaking, his principal fgestures are the occasional — 
and sometimes vehement — movement of the right 
arm, with now and then a tap upon the desk or rail 
in front of him. His voice — though rather monotonous 
— is good ; it is in this, his method or distinctness of 
delivery, that his greatest forte lies. His enunciation 
is most excellent, being full, clear, and forcible. Not 
a word is lost ; every sentence, every syllable, 
receives its due proportion of emphasis, which makes 
it an easy task for the hearers to listen to his harangues, 
and gives to every subject he discusses such forms of 
developement, as in many instances, to invest ideas, 
as old as time itself — with a freshness and power few 
can suppose to be the mere fruits of clear enunciation. 
In the whole course of our listening to public men, 
we do not know that we ever heard a more distinct, 
and forcible method of delivery, than that of the 
gentleman whom we are now attempting to describe. 
Intellectually we do not discover any very extraor- 
dinary powers ; there is little of originality in what 
he says ; he is one who likes to fish in other men's 
ponds ; to take up from others certain sentiments, or 
leading ideas, and by clothing them in his own Ian- 



i}[ 



guage, give them forth to the public — enlarged and 
elaborated. We have heard it said — by parties who 
know him — that in his sermons, he is wont to follow 
the same course, and that they could detect whole 
paragraphs, derived from other sources, than his own 
creative genius. There is nothing really wrong in 
this. Books and speeches, when once given to the 
world, become public property, and any man has a 
right to make the most advantageous use he can of 
them. 

It is sometimes a question, which many sensible 
people profess themselves unable to solve, which 
discovers the greatest powers of mind, the man whose 
creative powers gives forth his own conceptions, and 
his own productions ; or the one who, while borrow- 
ing thoughts from another, divests them of their first 
and primitive features, clothing them in other garbs, 
and then deals them out with perfect freshness, and 
perhaps, with increased lustre. We say some people 
find it a difficulty to determine to which of these 
persons belong the greater powers of mind. We, for 
ourselves, love originality ; there is, we think, a new- 
ness in it, a vivacity, a power not perceived during the 
delivery of sentiments, the substance of which we 
have heard, or read, a thousand times before. The 
man who can go forth, conscious of his own mental 
strength, leanmg upon his own available resources — ■ 
his own creative mind for ideas — must ever feel a 



04 



kind of liealtliy independency ; a stimulating kind of 
self-respect, far removed from the unhappy mendicant, 
who, supported by the gifts, or by the pirated con- 
tributions of others, finds at every turn, mementos of 
his ow^n humiliating condition. It is in the power of 
some men to carry on trade with a very little capital. 
It certainly denotes ingenuity and skill to do so : but 
it everlastingly cripples their energies, and plagues 
them in their progress. In this age of social and 
intellectual progress, capital is every thing. Now-a- 
days a man of small means, in commercial pursuits, is 
crushed by the pressure of competition ; and in the 
issue, has to fall a sacrifice to the system of trade 
adopted by the more opulent merchants. There is a 
competition going on in the intellectual world, and it 
will be woe to the unhappy dealer in a limited amount 
of originality when after the income of a few years shall 
have been expended, if he does not find some means 
to extend his intellectual trade, and replenish his 
exhausted funds. It must be remembered, however, 
as we said before, skill and ingenuity can do a great 
deal. We do not mean any thing personal in this. 
Our thoughts have been rambling, for when looking 
around us — not upon the subject of the present sketch 
— we had such a flow of reminiscence of character — 
now going the round of our public platforms — that 
somehow or other our pen took to itself a license to 
ramble from the subject, now under consideration, to 



95 



.1 number of persons less worthy our attention. Now, 
however, we must come back to the subject of this 
sketch, and after begging ten thousand pardons for 
the long digression, will try to complete our task. 
When examining the mental character of the gentle- 
man now before us, we think we can perceive the 
outlines of real greatness. It is true these outlines 
•ire partially concealed by the incrustations formed 
oy early neglect, but still we can trace them, and we 
are bold to assert — from what we discover of their 
form and proportions-that had the time of our friend's 
youth been auspiciously employed — had circum- 
stances placed him in the way of obtaining an 
University education, and other necessary influences, 
been brought to bear upon his early and pliable 
habits, he would have shone as a star of the first mag- 
nitude, and would have been the means of blessing the 
world by his intellectual accomplishments. The 
wonder is, with his early disadvantages, and his 
necessarily constant attendance upon business, how 
he has managed to arrive at his present honourable 
position. It is to his eternal honour, that in spite of 
surrounding obstacles, he has made so much progress ; 
for all must acknowledge it to be a task almost hercu- 
lean in its nature, to become self-educated ; to tear 
up the rough and rocky soil — and by impliments 
inflicting self-torture — to cut ofF long straggling 
branches; and to root up weeds interwoven into 
one's very being'; this is no easy, no pleasing task, 



96 



and when accomplished, and the soil cultivated, and 
brought to bear a fair average harvest ; it discovers a 
fortitude, an energy, a perseverance, we must both 
admire and applaud. 

The subject of this sketch deserves well of his 
brethren, not only on account of high cultivation of 
mind, but being exceedingly zealous for the reform 
movement ; and willing to stake his all, — property, 
person, and abilities — for the successful carrying out 
the objects of the movement, and on that account 
should be held in high estimation. Wliether tha 
movement be successful or not, — which time can alone 
determine, — he will have the satisfaction, arising from 
his having contributed his best efforts in order to 
accomplish it. For his co-operation in that movement 
he is much hated by the Conference party : but that 
is a matter of little importance to hira, for when duty 
and a sense of justice urge, he is bold and fearless, 
dreading not the frowns of the dominant party, but 
unflinchingly persevering in his onward course. 

Some of his speeches against despotism have been 
powerful and unsparing, under which the Conference 
rulers must have writhed in agony. In concluding 
our remarks, we can but say, that if the reformers of 
Methodism, had some dozen or two of such men as the 
one we have thus noticed, the matter in dispute would 
become widely understood, and most religiously, and 
— to the progressionist party — satisfactorily settled, in 
a comparatively short time. 



No. XX. 

Mk. FRANCIS WILLIAM - ^" * '' * * - * 

LOCAL PREACHER, FIRST LONDON CIRCUIT. 

A YOUNG man, somewhere about thirty-three ; tall 
and thin ; long featured ; nose long and bridged ; 
eyes black and small, the lids of which frequently 
come into contact, when he is speaking ; has a kind 
■ of compression about the mouth, when engaged in 
pulpit exercises, as if he were going to whistle ; did 
not speak much during the sittings of the delegates : 
but from personal knowledge of him, we can say that, 
he is a well informed man, and, when brought out, 
and allowed time for preparation, will neither disgrace 
the reform movement, by standing forward as its 
public advocate, nor weary an audience, which may 
have the honour of listening to him. He manifests 
no desire to push himself into prominency : but were 
he to enter the arena of debate, would stand second 



98 



to few. In his addresses there is notliing inflated or 
bombastic ; but much of good sense, convincing argu- 
ment, and elevating truth. His language is chaste, 
graphic, and lofty, he has no garbled phrases ; no 
jargon, but deals forth food both for the head and the 
heart. He is a " workman that needeth not to be 
ashamed." 



99 



No. XXT. 

]\ii{. a. w. * -■'•' * - - * - * 

EX-MAYOR OF WAKEFIELD. 

The Methodist Connexion can boast of its variety, and 
as well as other churclies, it ranks amongst its mem- 
bers, men distinguished by literature, science, and 
position in society. In its early history, it is true, 
" not many mighty, not many noble were called" to 
i'ts fellowship, it being confined at the first, principally 
to the colliers of Newcastle, and in other places to 
the outcasts of men, whom the members of the Church 
of England thought beneath their vocation to seek, 
and to elevate. In the salvation of the poor and 
neglected, Methodism was peculiarly honoured of 
God, who by his sanction of means, reprobated as 
rregular, if not insane, conferred great blessings on 
the whole of the nation. The pharisaism of the 
eighteenth century, had become so secularizing in its 



100 



character and tendency, as to have little of genuine 
Protestantism left, but the name. The various 
religious appliances had been so nicely balanced, with 
the prejudices of the rich, as to make the churches 
almost forget to seek the poor, or to incorporate them 
with their superiors in the church of him, who is no 
respecter of persons. 

It was not so with Methodism. Destined of God 
to work wonders in the kingdom and the world, it 
came forth from his hand unassuming in its civil and 
political character; making no pretentions to local 
aggrandizement ; offering few, if any, secular advan- 
tages ; but freely tendering to all, spiritual good in the 
renovation of the heart, and reformation of the life, by 
the simple holding forth of Gospel truth, as exhibited in 
the New Testament Scriptures : yet it struck a fearless 
blow at the immorality of the times ; it uttered 
ominous warnings against, and proclaimed war with, 
vice in every grade ; and it mightily assailed the mere 
formalities of pharisaism, which is a profession desti- 
tute of spiritual life, of all vigour, and opposed to the 
saving influence of truth. Striking here, Methodism 
struck at the popular spirit of the age, by which it so 
far impeded its own progress by the prejudices it 
excited, and the opponents it raised up, as to make 
men wanting in faith — though they wished it success 
— fear that it would fail ; yet still it prospered, and 
ran like a purging flame amongst the masses of society. 



101 



until it completely changed the aspect of the times ; 
roused a slumbering National Church from her 
lethargy, and was the honoured instrument, in a few 
years of reviving pure and undefiled rehgion in the 
land. 

In the social position of Methodism, and of its 
communicants, things have since those days strangely 
altered. The prejudices then existing against it as a 
body, have, in a great measure, subsided, and now it 
can boast a respectability and an influence second to 
no denomination in the kingdom. For wealth it is 
not to be despised, having chapel property to the 
amount of nine millions sterling ; it numbers in its 
societies in Great Britain 400,000, and amongst its 
stanchest adherents, are the rich in this world, the 
intellectual and the influential ; it has also Members 
of Parliament, Justices of the Peace, Municipal 
Dignitaries, and persons in almost all ranks of life 
connected with its fellowship, or holding seats in its 
chapels. The subject of the present sketch has filled 
the Mayor's ofiice in the town of Wakefield, and 
filled it too in such a way, as to reflect honour on 
himself, and credit on those who in 1848 elected him 
to that important trust. 

The ex-Mayor is in stature low, but stout ; the 
face is round, healthy looking, and fat. The eyes are 
small, and seem to perform the duty of peeping out 
from under the eyelids, with some degree of difficulty 



102 



in consequence of the superabundant muscle that 
surrounds them ; the nose is short and dumpy, but 
proportioned ; the lips well formed, and fitted for grace- 
ful speaking, being of such convenient size, as 
not to let out more or less air than what may be 
necessary for effective pronunciation. There is, it is 
true, sometimes while speaking, a throwing out of 
the lips, but they being in themselves thin, there is 
no unpleasant appearance produced, which would be 
the case, if any thing like the negro lip were seen in 
the subject under notice. Our friend uses glasses, which 
sit easily, and very appropriately upon the nose, 
giving to his appearance a degree of dignity, and 
claim to reverence. Having a short thick neck, 
his body turns with his head, and in the act of speak- 
ing, the latter is thrown back upon the shoulders. 
Sometimes when engaged in conversation with those 
near to him, he first looks over, and then under the 
rim of his glasses ; his general appearance is one of 
pleasantness, but still there is about him an air of 
dignity, which forbids too much famiharity, and 
which acts as an effectual check upon all approach to 
undue liberty taking. No doubt, his experience as a 
Magistrate, and the honours attending that ofiice have 
tended to perfect, if not altogether to produce, these 
characteristics. »?• i. 

In his address there is great coUectedness, much, 
ease, and the nicest decorum ; he deals in nothing o£ 



103 



the inflated, or vs^hich amounts to extravagance ; all 
is in strict keeping with the gravity and character of 
the man. He can be earnest, but his is the earnest- 
ness of one who appreciates truth, and eschews parade 
and enthusiasm. His voice is mellow, and harmonious, 
falling gently upon the ear like the soft zephyrs of the 
morning. He wears a white neck-cloth, which gives 
to him the appearance of a Wesleyan Divine, among 
whom — were he placed on some Missionary platform 
— he would be taken for a co-partner in the ministry. 
He makes one of the best chairmen we ever saw 
preside at a public meeting. What with his christian 
and dignified appearance ; his respectful demeanour, 
his tact in governing — during debates ; and his com- 
manding, yet graceful attitude, he is sure to elicit 
attention, and secure order. He will sometimes 
administer severe reproof to an unfortunate speaker, 
who may have outstepped the general line of business, 
or introduced arguments foreign from the subject im- 
mediately in hand. While as chairman he will 
command, he is always respectful, and though the 
unhappy wanderer may be writhing in agony under 
the correction of the chair, the meeting generally 
agrees with the propriety of the interference. 

Intellectually he is above mediocrity, having a clear 
and a deeply penetrating understanding, capable of 
nicely balancing the^qualities 'and bearings of things, 
and of weighing the evidence adduced m favour of any 



104 



particular proposition or principle. His mind is of 
the mathematical mould ; things or subjects requiring 
concentrated thought, are those most fitted for his 
studies. Of imagination he has little ; impassioned 
eloquence seldom pours forth from his lips, but when 
it^does, it is of the most chaste and lucid description. 



105 



No. LXIT. 

Mr. ROBERT S. ***** >i^ * 

LEADER AND LOCAL PREACHER, NEWCASTLE 

Fast verginor upon seventy years of age ; inclined to 
be stout ; middle sized ; clear and rather ruddy com- 
plexioned ; round featured ; partly bald ; small, clear 
bright eye, beaming forth benignity, and much affec- 
tion ; of simple and unaffected manners ; of mild and 
unassuming habits ; and the personification of all that 
is benevolent and indulgent in a parent. In his public 
addresses he is simple, chaste, and calm, as if he were 
engaged in a fire-side chat, or a friendly conversation. 
He has borne the burden and heat of the day, having 
been forty-six years on his journey heavenwards, and 
about the same length of time a member of the 
Methodist Society, in promoting the interests of which, 
he has been in labours more abundant, in zeal untiring, 
in perseverence unfailing, in fidelity uncompromising} 



106 



and In character unimpeachable. He is intelligent, 
having a mind well stored with useful knowledge ; 
and though not possessing any uncommon powers, 
is capable of perceiving clearly, and understanding 
thoroughly any subject to which he directs his atten- 
tion. To know him, is to love him ; for he is frank, 
open, courteous and obliging ; and as far as possible 
disposed to help forward every good cause. 



107 



No. XXIII. 
Mr, RICHARD ******>!< 

LEADER, MANCHESTER. 

Tall, thin, and in appearance delicate ; appears to be 
a man of deep and constant thought, and the subject 
of care. In the countenance there is a degree of 
reserve, inclined to the ascetic if not the melancholy, as 
if in past life he had been called to breast more than 
ordinary storms, and was now, in a weakened frame, 
sustaining the consequences. The head is large, and 
forehead Tery prominent ; has a profusion of hair, 
which is apparently suffered to luxuriate at pleasure, 
little or no care being taken to put and keep it in 
form. The eye is of a dark grey colour, and rery 
penetrating— one more so we have seldom seen — it 
is large and sunk in the socket. Face rather long, 
nose bridged and dumpy. He spoke but little at the 
meeting and appeared very nervous and much excited. 
It was understood by many of the delegates, that he 
was the X. Y. Z. of the " Wesleyan Times " and 
" Wesley Banner. " We should take him to be a much 
better writer than speaker, he being too nervous for 
the latter employment. ' 



108 



No XXIV. 

Mr. alderman * * * '■'- * * * * - 

LOCAL PREACHER AND TRUSTEE, SHEFFIELD. 

This gentleman forms a fine subject, and is worthy 
the pencil of a first-rate artist, — a Reubens, a 
Rembrandt, or a Vandyke. There is something in the 
features approaching to the mysterious, and which an 
ordinary pencil finds it difficult to dehneate. We gazed 
upon those features and watched as distinctly and as 
carefully as we could, their varied ijidications, but 
when we had done our best to anal3-ze the facial indices 
we failed to arrive at any satisfactory knowledge of 
the inward volume to which those indices were 
prefixed. There is in the case now before us, a unique 
character of expression in the countenance, whicli is 
essentially different from that which is ordinarilj' seen ; 
but which, from its sui generis form, is exceedingly 
difficult to read and much more so to describe. Tii« 



109 



reader, no doubt, has encountered similar difficulty to 
that we experience, when, in the course of his rambles 
among- mankind, he has essayed to sketch habits and 
character from physiolog-ical organs, whose develope- 
ment he had^but imperfect means of suitably observ- 
ing. So far as we think it prudent to attempt a deli- 
neation of the gentleman now seated before us, we 
may say that the features are stiff; but not possessing 
any thing of asceticism or moroseness, for of these 
properties there is not the slightest indication. There 
is however a grave reservedness of character conspicu- 
ous, and which is increased by the peculiarity of the 
complexion, that being in appearance as though a 
preparation of chalk lay under the first skin and which 
imparts a greyish colour to the face. The eyes are 
sunk in the head and are of a brown colour ; his eye- 
brows are thickly set with hair, and are often subject to 
a kind of knitting, which forms something like a" per- 
pendicular furrow in the forehead. 

Mentally he is no ordinary man, having in most 
cases clear views, and a sound judgment. He is ex- 
ceedingly cautious and generally will think and pon- 
der before he comes to a decision ; is in the habit of 
weighing matters before he commits himself to any 
decisive course of action ; and is not a man with 
whom the specious, in the absence of the sound, will 
have much influence. He can tell the leading- features 
of comingincidentsand—havins: studied the future from 



110 



the occurrences of the past — is one "who agrees with 
the truth of the phrase "coming events cast their 
shadows before them, " and like the good man of 
whom Solomon spoke "seeth evil and avoideth it, 
and good and pursueth it. " We venture to say, he is 
seldom wrong in his commercial calculations, or the 
loser in business speculations ; if he is, something 
most uncommon must have occurred, to deceive him. 



A 



I 

I 



Ill 



No. XXV. 

Mr. WILLIAM **>:=** 

LOCAL PREACHER AND LEADER, THIRD LONDON CIRCUIT. 

Amongst the many, whose likenesses will be placed 
in the delegate portrait gallery, few possess more 
valuable qualities in intellectuality, than the subject 
of the present sketch. He is evidently a man of very 
superior mind, and one largely conversant with the 
literature of the day. He is not of the class of those 
speakers who are in the habit of skimming over the 
mere surface of things, and leaving the substance, or the 
elements of which they are composed, untouched, or 
without examination . He must descend to the very 
bottom, and attain the mastery over every subject he 
undertakes to study. His mind is fitted for the 
abstruse, or the mathematical ; he likes to grapple 
with what requires labour, and deep thinking ; in 
such pursuits he is evidently at home, and were he 



]I2 



to give himself wholly to them, few would emit a 
brighter lustre, or confer greater benefits on the age. 
In speaking he is calm, yet earnest ; animated, yet 
free from all bitterness, and every species of clap-trap. 
His sentiments are uttered with the view of arresting 
the judgment in order to produce intelligent convic- 
tion ; hence, he appeals — not to the passions of men, 
but — to their reason — to their sense of justice ; he 
uses no circumlocution to reach his hearers ; but he 
presents truth, in a bold, lucid, and argumentative 
manner, and then leaves its own omnipotence to 
evacuate the mind of error, and to win disciples to its 
immortal Author. There is with his arguments 
sometimes a blending of the most chaste and beau- 
tiful sentiments, and which gives a relief to the subject 
he discusses ; the tedium of argumentation thus 
interspersed with lively and pleasing parallelisms, — 
when they can be clothed in elegant diction, such as 
our friend employs — is a desideratum in polemic 
science. Graphic descriptions and pleasing sentiment, 
are not often the accompaniments of minds fond of 
metaphysics ; there is too frequently something barren 
of all interest in such nien's disquisitions, but when a 
person is capable of rendering those subjects — confes- 
sedly dry — at all interesting to listeners of ordinary 
capacity, it betokens a mind above the common 
order. 



113 



The personal features of the subject of this sketch 
are pleasing ; he is the gentleman in appearance, in 
manner, and in address ; tall in stature ; spare in 
person, but well proportioned. Nature seems to 
have been exceedingly particular in adjusting the 
proportions of the body ; in all there has been a due 
regard to sjTumetry, to figure and dimensions, as if a 
"well constructed, and highly cultivated mind, required 
analogous proportion, and regularity in the casket 
that contained it. This is not always the case. There 
are minds too great for the bodies which contain 
them, and which by the pressure of intellectual power, 
working upon the disproportionate systems, sinks 
them to an early decay, if not to premature graves. 
Poor Kirk White was an instance of this — On the 
contrary, however, there are persons whose bodies 
are physically constituted, so as to bear almost any 
thing ; while at the same time they have minds so 
limited in their powers, as almost to escape the most 
careful observation. It is not so with the present 
subject ; in him there is nothing superfluous ; all is in 
perfect harmony, so that the keeping in the various 
parts of his bodily structure, and the harmony of 
these with the qualities of his mind, are such as to 
render him a fit subject for the sculptor to imitate, 
the painter to portray, or the literati to describe. 



114 



Ko. XXVI. 

Mr. JOHN * * * * 

TRUSTEE AND LEADER, NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

A PLAIN Straight-forward Northumbrian, whose sim- 
ple and unadorned tale no one could have heard 
without the conviction being forced upon him, that the 
sentiments Mr. * * * * was delivering were the 
sincere feelings of his heart. He is far advanced in life ; 
but in person even now, is strongly built, and in 
youth must have been exceedingly muscular and 
powerful. The head and face are round, and the hair, 
which is spangled with grey, lies flat on the head and 
not parted, either to the right or the left, but is plain 
and unbroken like a school boy's. The complexion 
is dark and hardy in appearance, as if the sporting 
blasts of many winters' storms, and the scorching 
heats of many summers' suns, had combined to leave 
indelible traces of their power. The eyes are small 



115 



and grey, and indicative of innocence and frankness 
and they rest in their sockets cahnly ; all the other 
features are in keeping with the expression of the 
visual organs. When speaking, there is little or no 
motion of any part of the .body, nor ls there any 
attempt to gain attention, nor any apparent pleasure 
when it is gained. His business is to tell what he 
thinks, and having done that, it is a matter of little 
consequence to him ifthat people may say about it. 
He is no speaker, nor does he spoil himself by 
making any pretentions to the art. 



116 



No. xxvir. 

Mr. JOHN * * * * 

EX-LOCAL PREACHER, LYNN 

Little in stature, but stout and muscular ; features 
round ; eyes black, large and piercing ; nose bold 
and well formed ; lips pleasingly sculptured ; com- 
plexion hardy and dark, as if partly bronzed ; head 
large for the size of the man, and forehead broad and 
noble. On the whole, the present subject is a man 
who will bear looking at, and not appear the worse 
by scrutiny. The name of this gentleman is already 
familiar with the public generally, and with the 
Wesleyans in particular, he being an expelled local 
preacher, in the Lynn circuit. The circumstances of 
his trial are fully reported in the " Wesleyan Times," 
of December the 81st, 1849, to which, for particulars, 



117 



wc refer our readers. He is a good speaker, posses- 
sing a clear and distinct enunciation ; has an easy 
flow of thought, and as to language, can command 
the graphic in delineation, the cogent in argument, 
and the powerful in appeal. Has a great love of, 
and admiration for. Scriptural precedent in every 
thing relating to the Church, especially in its laws 
and privileges, as laid down in the Acts of the Apostles, 
and exemplified in the primitive ages of Christianity. 

In the constitution of the modern church he advo- 
cates the broad Scriptural basis ; and no reasoning — 
no expediency — no existing obstacles — can cause him 
for one moment to give up his views, or to be silent, 
when they are assailed. 

In the discussion on the " Deed Poll," whe^ the 
majority of the delegates were willing to confirm the 
original powers, conveyed by that instrument to the 
Legal Conference — in case the reforms sought in 
Methodism were obtained — he stood firm to his 
convictions, that Lay Delegation, being a Scriptural 
right, and, therefore, necessary to be introduced into 
every department of the church, he could not support 
the resolution relating to the confirmation of the 
deed in question. The mind of this gentleman is well 
stored with good and wholesome knowledge, which, 
in his official capacity, he makes subservient to the 
interests of pure religion. His^ manner is energetic, 
8 



118 



but not boisterous, being in the midway between all 
extremes ; liis gestures are the movement of the right 
arm, which is sometimes wielded with energy ; the 
occasional and sharp twisting of the body, so as to 
face the different parts of an audience, and accom- 
modate himself to all. There is much of gravity in 
his demeanour, us well as sterling value, in the senti- 
ments he utters ; possessing little of the imaginative, 
lie treads upon surer ground than the wanderings of 
fancy, or the vagaries of enthusiasm can supply. He 
is thoughtful, prudent, and calculating, and exercises 
his judgment with considerable care, before he com- 
mits himself to any measure. These things we 
inferred from the manner in which he listened to the 
various speakers, at the delegate meeting. As we 
sat near to him, we watched his movements ; and as 
the debates proceeded, and the interest became 
greater, his eye beamed with increased lustre, and could 
but very seldom be diverted from its fixedness on 
the speaker, and if it for once was called off, it flew 
back with the rapidity of light, and again with the 
ear, appeared to drmk in with avidity the sentiments 
put forth. On the rising of every speaker the same 
interest was observable, and occasionally, on the 
advancement of a weighty argument, there was the 
noting of passing thoughts upon paper. He is in 
the prime of manhood ; has been a member of socli 



119 



twenty-one years ; and though now expelled from Its 
communion, for sympathizing' with the expelled 
ministers, and co-opperating in the advocacy of 
reform in the Wesleyan polit}', he retains the sympa- 
thies and high regard of his brethren in the Lynn 
Societies, whose members, to the number of four 
hundred, have nobly rallied round him and his 
companions in suffering. 

Tlie reform movement has thus assumed in that 
circuit an aspect of great importance, and is big wuth 
present and future consequences to the Connexion. 
Not that they have seceded or become a distinct 
church ; no, the demonstrative measures they have 
adopted have been resorted to in order to give the 
Conference to see, that they will not permit their 
brethren to be expelled, — driven into the wilderness 
of the world as sheep having no shepherd, — for no 
cause but that of expressing their opinions, and 
seeking the redress of grievances which have long 
been felt to exist ; that they will not be silent spec- 
tators of such arbitrary proceedings, but will life up a 
warning, a protesting voice against such innovation 
and monopoly. Their object, therefore, is not to 
become a distinct body, but to secure the restoration 
of their expelled brethren, and the redress of 
grievances complained of ; and on such a result, they 
will return, one and all, to their former position and 



120 



labour, and willingly co-opperate in the working out 
of the designs of Methodism of spreading "Scriptural 
holiness through the land." The conduct of the 
Lynn people, we look upon as a fine feature in the 
present movement. Had the societies there, and 
elsewhere, allowed their brethren to undergo excision 
— the extreme penalty awarded to the most flagrant 
and immoral professor — for merely advocating, what 
in their consciences, they thought absolutely neces- 
sary for the preservation of Methodism from pros- 
tration and ruin, without protesting against the 
innovation and tyranny, it would have been indica- 
tive of a lethargy fearfully betokening the loss of all 
spiritual communion and love of the brethren, 
especially that love enforced by our Lord and the 
New Testament Scriptures, as the test of experi- 
mental religion, and proof of a " fellow citizenship 
with the saints'* 

Had the brethren at Lynn displayed but little 
interest in the expulsion of their leaders, it would 
(to our mind at least), have presented features of fast 
approaching — if not already actually existing — 
apostacy from God and the vitalities of religion. But 
this is not the case. The people have made a noble 
stand against despotism and tyranny; have given to 
tlic church and to the world, a practical develop- 
ment of the power of Christian love, by explaining 



121 



in their lives bow it is that when " one member suffers 
the others suffer with it, " and by bearing each others 
burdens, sustaining each others sorrows, so as should be 
done by members of the same household of faith. 
They have thus made a noble stand for " the truth as 
it is in Jesus." 



THE 

EXPOSITION AND DEFENCE. 



It will not be thought contrar}^ to the design of the 
present work, to introduce to the reader the measures 
of Reform, resolved upon by the delegates, sketches 
of whom in the foregoing pages we have attempted 
to give. Sach an introduction of the measures advo- 
cated, we consider a necessary appendage to the work 
now introduced to the public, for without some 
defined object placed before the attention of the 
reader, much of the interest attaching itself to the 
sketches, will be lost sight of. To remedy this we 
will first give the resolutions or measures proposed ; 
and which are intended to be presented to the 
Conference in the foroi of a memorial, and then proceed 
to make a few observations upon each, in the order in 
which they are set forth in the Declaration. ^ 



123 



- The Resolutions embodying- the general principles 
of the reform movement, and as set forth in tlie 
memorial, run as follow, and are headed : " The 

DkCLARATION of OrnCE-BEARERS, AND MEMBERS OF THE 

Wesleyan Methodist Societies, as passed at the 
Aggregate Meeting of Delegates, in London, on the 
12th., of March, 1850." Prefaced by the following 
remarks, 

" We, the undersigned Office-bearers, and members 
of the VVeslej-an Methodist Societies, deeply concerned 
for the welfare of our Connexion, and anxious for the 
purity, peace, and prosperity of the same, are Induced 
publicly to make known our views and wishes on the 
future administration of Wesleyan Methodism. 

" These we declare to be contained In the foWowing 
Resolutions, passed at the Conference of delegates, 
Sec. &c. 

I. — " That we cordially approve of the doctrines of 
John Wesley, as laid down In his standard writings, 
believing them to be scriptural ; and our object is to 
make Wesleyan Methodism more efficient, by the 
removal of such laws and usages as are unscriptural, 
or unfriendly to the civil and religious Interests of the 
body, and by rendering its constitution and laws 
conformable to New Testament principles ; and we 
declare that the Wesleyan Conference has no just or 
scriptural ground for constituting Itself the sole legis- 
lative bodv of the Connexion. 



124 



II. — " That the hnpropriet}- and evil of such 
assumption of power, is abundantly manifested by 
the oppressive character and injurious tendency of 
some of the enactments of the Conference, so likely 
to irritate and destroy the peace of the Connexion, 
and especially the declaratory resolutions of 1835, 
and others which infringe upon the liberties of the 
people. 

III. — " That we disapprove of all the regulations 
which prevent the Members or Office-bearers from 
holding meetings, or memorialising the Conference on 
any subject whatever, and are of opinion that they 
should be at once repealed. 

ly. — " That \¥e are of opinion that if the Confer- 
ence be confined to the assemblage of the legally 
constituted 100 members who compose it, and to the 
exclusive discharge of the duties and requirements of 
the " Deed Poll," then the introduction of laymen to 
participate in its proceedings may be rendered 
unnecessary. 

V. — " That all Leaders and Office-bearers should 
be chosen by the vote of the church, and thus the 
people be represented in the Quarterly and other 
official meetings. 

VI. — " That all disciplinary acts, admission into 
and expulsion from the church, should be determined 
by the Leaders' meeting, subject to an appeal to the 
Quarterly meeting, whose decision shall be final. 



125 



VII. — That the Quarterly meeting consist of all 
the Travelling and Local Preachers, Leaders, Trustees 
(being Members of Society), and Stewards, in the 
Circuit, with power to appoint, out of their own 
number, Secretaries or Auditors. 

Vin. — " That the District meeting consist of the 
Travelling Preachers stationed in the District, and an 
equal number of Lay Representatives, to be chosen at 
the March Quarterly meeting ; each Circuit in.^the 
District choosing as many Lay Representatives as 
there are Preachers entitled to vote in that Circuit. 

IX. — " That the Superintendent Preacher be the 
chairman at all meetings of the church ; but his 
absence or refusal to act, should not prevent or 
invalidate the proceedings of such meetings. The 
meeting, in such case, should be at liberty to elect 
one of its members to that office ; the Chairman 
should have the casting vote only. 

X. — " That the Connexional Committees should 
consist equally of Preachers and Laymen, the latter 
to be chosen by the Lay members of the District 
meeting ; and that the Treasurers of the Funds should 
invariably be lajinen, and also the Secretaries, if 
practicable. 

XI. — " That a Committee of Laymen be appointed, 
in the first instance by the Delegate meeting, {who 
were named accordingly,^ for guarding the rights and 
privileges of the people ; and that such Committee, 



126 J, 

revise tlie whole of the Methodlstic laws, and shall be 
empowered to act in conjunction with the Conference 
or their Committee, and to agree upon and settle such 
a Code as shall tend to promote the peace and pros- 
perit)'^ of the Connexion ; and that in future two 
members of Committee be appointed annually by the 
Laymen assembled in every District meeting ; and 
that the aggregate number so chosen, shall constitute 
the Committee for the privileges of the people. 

XII. — " That we, strongly condemning the acts of 
discipline upon the Rev. Messrs. Everett, Dunn, and 
Griffith, believing them to be directly opposed to the 
spirit and genius of British law, Methodist usage, and 
the common interpretation of Scripture, which require 
the production of evidence, before infliction or 
penalty, urge that these decisions should be re-con- 
sidered by the Conference ; and, further, that thr 
recent disciplinary acts upon Laj-men, (resulting from 
the above,) be deemed null and void, as founded 
upon laws so generally condemned. 

" We the undersigned, are of opinion that the 
adoption of the principles contained in the foregoing 
Resolutions would be the most effectual way to pre- 
serve and strengthen every thing that is valuable it. 
our beloved Methodism, remove the causes of 
agitation, and restore peace and harmony throughout 
the Connexion." 



127 



Tiiose are the resolutions, and in tliem the pubhc, 
nnd especially the religious part of it will feel in- 
terested, because of the vast resources and powerfid 
influence of the denomination, into which they are 
sought to be introduced. A community like the 
Methodists must ever possess great influence over the 
public mind ; intimately connected as it is with the pro- 
motion of the welfare of the Empire at large — more 
especially when viewed in the aggregate — when reck- 
oned along with its branches or off'-shoots, — including 
the Primitive Methodists, the New Connexion, the 
Independent Methodists, and the Wesleyan Associa- 
tion, — whose aggregate numbers amount to five 
hundred thousand. 'To say nothing of the great 
amount of hearers (averaging at the least four to 
every member) who, though not in Church fellowship, 
yet bear the name, and politically and relatively use 
their influence as if they were members, — and, 
moreover, there is an almost incredible number of 
Sunday-school scholars, — so that when these things 
are considered, it cannot be a matter of indiflTerence 
to the public how things are conducted by and in 
such a section of the Christian church. 

It may be asked, but why refer to other sections of 
the Methodist church ? What have they to do with 
the present movement? Because they are of the 
same family, entertaining the same views upon 
doctrinal and religious subjects, and generally hold 



128 



the same sentiments in reference to civil and religious 
liberty ; therefore, by giving the aggregate of their 
numerical strength, the public will be able to appre- 
ciate their influence in society, mixed up as all must 
ever be in the advantages flowing from the enjoyment 
of unshackled freedom. But the main reason why 
we thus refer to the various branches emanating from 
Methodism is, because ihey are part and parcel of 
Methodism as well as ourselves, and as such have an 
interest in it in common with us. The evils of which 
we complain have in most cases given rise to all the 
miseries that ever afflicted the Methodist church, 
since the decease of its venerable founder. The 
schisms that have taken place, from first to last, have 
arisen from the assumption of power by some who 
would be " lords over God's heritage," or from inno- 
vation upon the rights of the people, and the conse- 
quent shackling of their Christian liberties. The 
Kilhamite division (now called the New Connexion) 
had its origin in the refusing of the Sacraments to the 
to the Societies as such. In 1827, in the town of 
Leeds, 2,000 members were cut ofl* from communion 
with the church, by the arbitrary domination of a 
despotic few, who to get " a box of whistles'^ intro- 
duced into the Brunswick Chapel, threw the Con- 
nexion into a ferment. The Association squabble was 
brought about by the prejudice of one man, who had 
taken a liking to " Theological Institutions," and 



129 



rather than ^ive up a favourite scheme, or have it 
introduced constitutionally, he suffered a loss to tlie 
Societies of from twenty to thirty thousand members. 
All these evils have resulted indirectly from one and 
the same cause — the want of a due admixture of Lay 
influence in the governing power. Had this element 
been suitably introduced, as a balance of authority, 
Methodism at the present day would not have been 
divided into live sections ; but would have remained 
ONE in every sense of the word. 

Can it be said that these off-shoots have no interest 
in the present movement ? That the branches have 
no interest in the tree? That the children are to 
have no sympathy in the sufferings and agonies of the 
parent, when seeking release from bondage, — liberty 
from oppression, — and freedom from tyranny ? Cold 
indeed must beat that heart ; slowly must flow the 
blood of Wesleyanism if the present struggle of her 
sons in the battle for freedom, does not find a cheer- 
ful and hearty response in the breast of every true 
hearted Methodist ! The struggle is one. Those 
engaged in former battles fought, it is true, and lost 
the day. Despotism was triumphant, and the victims 
of tyranny had to form infant Churches ; to struggle 
with difiiculties insurmountable, except to a christian 
spirit ; to commence a new era, — a new epoch in the 
history of Christian denominationalism. Theirinterests 
are one aijd the same with our own. It is true they 



130 



arc not now engaged in the struggle — in actual com- 
bat — but they are deeply interested lookers on ; 
hailinij and encouracriu;? the band of worthies who 
are engaged in the conflict, in the field of which they 
themselves were vanquished ; and in the issue they 
feel alike interested, — be it for weal, or for woe, — if 
the former, they will exult with the conquerors ; if 
the latter, they will weep in secret places " for the 
slain of their brethren," and in their humiliation put on 
" garments of sackcloth and ashes." Little or no dif- 
ference is discoverable, between the declaration put 
forth by the delegate meeting, and the constitution 
of the seceding churches ; and if God in his mercy 
should come down to the help of his people, and " by 
battle, or by sword, or by a still small voice" gain 
the victory for them, would it not present an oppor- 
tunity for these excised — and unrighteously dealt 
with — brethren to be restored to the church of their 
forefathers ; to the Zion of their birth ? 

Could there be a greater boon than this to Weslej'an 
Methodism ; when the children and the parent once 
more meet in mutual concord and love, and embracing 
each other in paternal and filial affection, consolidate 
their interests, their joys, their usefulness, in a fraternal 
alliance, never to be broken off until death, and then 
only to be resumed in heaven for ever ? What heart 
would not gladden at such an issue ? What Wesleyan 
would not rejoice at such a consummation ? And 



131 



wl)y should it not take place ? Much in late ycdra 
has been said of the " Evangelical Alliance :" and 
valuable as are its projects, infinitely important to 
Christendom and the world, as are the objects sought 
to be realized by that organization — what could tend 
more to strengthen its forces, or practically to exem- 
plify its principles, than to witness the re-union of 
long squandered brethren? Who can tell but that in 
the Providence of God such an ultimatum is in rever- 
sion ? If so, ages to come will bless the memory of 
the men, who at the cost of persecution and temporary 
expulsion from the church, were the instruments of 
accomplishing such a noble object. 
We now proceed to notice the measures advocated in 
tlie Declaration, as put forth by the delegate meeting. 
The first Resolution is declaratory of continued 
attachment to Johu kVesle^/ Methodism — to the 
doctrines laid down in his standard writings. And 
who has a right to question the truth of that declara- 
tion? Is the sincerity of their attachment to be 
questioned — as it most assuredly is by the Conference 
— from the circumstance of their taking means to 
procure the repeal of obnoxious and anti-Scriptural 
laws, laws which the venerable Founder of Methodism, 
would have been ashamed to have introduced into its 
.statute book \ Laws at direct and open variance from 
the genius of Christianity, the times in which we live, 
and the civil and representative character of the 



132 



Government of our country ? Are the eflEbrts to free 
a Christian denomination from the shackles of 
oligarchical tyranny, and exclusive and irresponsible 
despotism, to be taken as proofs that the parties 
putting forth those efforts are the enemies of Metho- 
dism, in its pure and primitive character? Why the 
thing is monstrous. The very anxiety they manifest ; 
the very course they are pursuing ; the measures of 
reform they seek to introduce, prove to all the vs^orld, 
that they are the true "conservators" of Methodism, 
— ^not indeed as it is, — but as it ought to be, and as it 
must be if it retain its position of usefulness in the 
world, and its efficiency for the promotion of 
God's glory and the salvation of men. Enemies to Me- 
thodism ! Never : what doctrines have they attempted 
to undermine ? What Scriptural discipline have they 
wished to enervate ? What sacred principles of 
Church polity — left them as a legacy by John Wesley, 
— ^liave they tried to uproot ? Answer those that can, 
and until an answer can be given, not only affirming, 
but substantiating such charges, let the term 
" enemies to Methodism " rebound on the Conference 
" clique " who have trammelled, manacled, and 
bound down the genius of original Methodism, by the 
arbitrary imposts of 1835, and put into force, laws 
and proscriptions which would disgrace a Russian 
Autocrat, or a Roman Pontiff. 
But this declaration is immediately connected 



iSii 



with an avowed object, and that is " the removal of 
such laws and usages as are un-Scriptural, or un-fricndly 
to the civil and religious interests of the body ; " such 
as condemning and punishing a man without a charge, 
without an accuser, and without evidence. And are 
not condemnation and punishment upon such terms 
" un-Scriptural and un-friendly to civil and religious 
interests?" If not, then the "Magna Charta," 
— that birth right of every Briton — is a blot upon our 
Constitution ; a mockery to all our English hopes. 
Would it comport with our present national constitu- 
tion and pohty,-to have amongst us a Bonner, and a 
Judge JefTries who, setting aside Scripture, reason, 
and justice, and wielding the hand of despotism and 
cruelty, could hang all that came within their reach, 
for what cause soever arraigned ? 

Equally just would it be, and equally would it be 
in keeping with all true notions of liberty, that the 
Methodist Conference should expel for whatever cause 
they think proper. Can it be expected that the Britisk 
public would permit such proceedings in the civil 
courts ? Or can it be expected that the Methodist 
Societies will peaceably sit down with the des- 
potic doings of 1849, in the Manchester Con- 
ference? Will the expulsion of three of their 
mmistcrs without trial, without charge, and without 
evidence, be allowed? Or, as has more recently been 
witnessed in the local courts of Methodism — the arbi- 
9 



134 



trary expulsion of Lay members, for sympathizing 
with those mmisters, and taking an active part in 
seeking a wholesome reform — be tolerated ? But the 
Resolution goes on to say that their object is to 
** render its constitution conformable to New Testa- 
ment principles. " Now if any man will take upon 
himself the onorous task of proving that any one of 
the measures sought to be introduced are un- 
Scriptural, the delegates will abandon them for ever, 
but not until then. Further, the resolution goes on 
to say " we declare that the Wesleyan Conference 
has no just or Scriptural grounds for constitutuig 
itself the sole legislative body of the Connexion '* 

Has no just ground. Whatever power the Con- 
ference possesses it must have either been delegated 
to it, or assumed by it. If it is delegated to it, the 
document in which such delegation is conveyed, 
ought to be produced. The " Poll Deed " most 
assuredly does not convey it ; it could not. It is out 
of the power of any legal document whatever, to give 
to any an absolute power to govern a voluntary 
association. But even if it could, the deed conveying 
it, is no where to be found. The "Poll Deed" 
provides for no such authority in any synod or body 
of ministers whatever. It may give them power to 
govern, to legislate for themselves — to station the 
preachers &c, &c — but not one word is said about the 
Conference being the "sole legislative body of the 



135 



Connexion '*^ It gives no power to do this, and had 
it attempted to bestow such, it would have been a 
mere imposition on the people. But the people, it 
may be said, have voluntarily surrendered their 
allegiance to the power of Conference ? We ask 
when and where ? They did, we admit, allow their 
venerable Founder, a power which they would give to 
no other man, or body of men ; and that he distinctly 
foretold, shortly before his death. But even if they 
had made such surrender, the right to revoke it would 
exist. But the Scriptures may have delegated this 
power to the ministry. Where ? in what part of the 
New Testament Scriptures are we to find it ? Surely 
not in the case of Peter, who had given to lum the keys 
of the kingdom of heaven. This case will hardly 
do to explain that, so as to favour them, it would be 
bordering too closely upon the doctrine of " Apostohc 
succession" for the. admirers of Mr. Powell's ably 
written book to allow. Then if this power is not 
delegated, it must have been assumed; but an assumed 
power to legislate for any ^church is neither just nor 
Scriptural, for the LORD is our law-giver. A Scriptural 
precedent of a church governed exclusively by a 
ministerial body is not to be found, and even if it 
were, in those days of miracle, and of Inspiration, 
it would not warrant subsequent ministers to lay claim 
to the same prerogatives ; but such a case is not on 
record. " For " writes Mosheim " the people rejected 



136 



or confirmed, by their suffrages, the laws that were 
proposed by their rulers ; passed judgment upon 
different subjects of controversy, and dissentions that 
arose in their community. " The second Resolution 
expresses disapproval of all such " assumptions of 
power " and proceeds to disclose the natural tenden- 
cies of such assumptions in arbitrary " enactments, 
irritating and destroying the peace of the Connexion" 
and instances the " declaratory resolution " or popish 
law of 1835, — a law " steeped in apostacy and un- 
belief" This declaratory law refers to three points : 
first, it asserts the "undoubted right of the Conference 
and of all its district committees, whether ordinary or 
special, to institute, in their official or collective 
character, any inquiry or investigation which they 
may deem expedient, into the moral. Christian, or 
ministerial conduct of the preachers under their care, 
even although no formal or regular accusation may 
haw been premously announced on the part of any 
individual," that *'they have also the authority of 
coming to such decisions thereupon, as to them may 
seem most conformable to the laws of the New 
Testament, and the rules and usages of the Con- 
nexion." This part affects the preachers. 

The second part refers to the expulsion of members ; 
and virtually gives to the Superintendent, power to 
expel for any cause he may think proper ; merely 
giving to the Local courts, — denominated " Leaders' 



137 



Meetings," — the privilege of saying if the charge be 
" proven" or not, and however light or trivial that 
charge may be, he, in the exercise of absolute 'power 
can inflict the highest penalty, — that is Methodistic 
death. For instance, charges have been brought 
against certain parties, for attending the late delegate 
meeting in London. The express object of which 
delegate meeting was to preserve the Societies from 
ruin, and to restore peace, by seeking the repeal of 
odious laws, as well, as a wholesome revision of the 
Methodistic polity. The charge of attendance 
at that meeting, was brought in some instances by a 
minister ; in others by a layman, prompted to it by 
some high functionary. Now, in these cases the 
charges were never sought to be refuted, and hence 
expulsion immediately ensued. Who does not 
see the injustice of such a course ? No inquiry is 
made into the Scriptural legality of attending such 
meetings of Church Representatives. No deference 
is paid to the civil and constitutional right enjoyed 
by the members of the British realm, thus to meet 
and express their grievances. No regard is paid to, 
or any inquiry made concerning the necessity of such 
meetings, by the existence of abuses in Connexional 
legislation. Oh, no ! these are matters that do not 
appear to concern the ministers ; and if inquired into 
would prejudice, nay, jeopardize the object they have 
in view, which is the expulsion of the dis-aficcted, 



138 



merely because they are sucli. In these courts the 
leaders are at once put into a fix, by being asked to 
" affirm" what all the world knows, and then the 
ministers take upon themselves the offices of Judges 
and Law-makers, and irrespective of the punishment 
due to the offence, sentence the conscientious 
delegate, to the extreme penalty of expulsion, for 
merely doing his duty as a man, as a member of the 
church, and as a Christian. 

Formerly in the rules as printed at their own Book 
Room, from 1798 to 1804 no member could be expelled 
the society "except by a majority of a Leaders' 
meeting :" but under the arbitrary and despotic law 
of 1835, the Leaders have nothing whatever to do 
with the expulsion of a member, only to say a thing 
is " proven." We are aware that, it may be said by 
the Conference defenders, that this course finds a 
precedent in our Civil courts, and " Trial by Jury." 
Their bu.siness is only to be satisfied of the proof of 
a fact, or the establishment of a charge. Admitted : 
but these are far from being parallel cases. In the 
latter there is to meet the case, a specific law laid 
down, enrolled in the English statute book, and the 
Judge cannot exceed it. He may, on the jury recom- 
mending the prisoner to mercy, lessen the punishment 
awarded by law ; but in no case can he transcend it, 
as there is, in English law, a due regard always paid 
to the demerit of the culprit. Besides; the jury, the 



J 39 



culprit, and the wliola population of the realm 'are 
consenting parties to those laws, they having been 
made by their various representatives in the British 
Parliament ; and thus in the persons of their repre- 
sentatives, they are presumed to have consented to 
their enactment. Moreover the public when discovering 
the obnoxiousness, or the prejudicial workings 
or bearmgs of any particular law has the power of 
appeal, and of memorializing Government — unre- 
stricted by time, place, or office — which is far from 
being the case in the Methodist Connexion. The 
cases are not parallel. If every juryman, empannelled 
in our courts, knew that each culprit was at the mercy, 
or caprice, or will of the Judge, and that the issue of 
every case, and trial of every criminal brought before 
them would be the same — without any reference to 
the atrocity of the crime perpetrated, — then the cases 
would be nearly parallel : but until the Judge become 
at once the maker of laws, the accuser, the witness 
and the executioner, there will be no analogy, and 
such a similarity we pray God never to permit ! 

It is true the victims of such proceedings at our 
Leaders' meetings, are said to have the privilege of 
appeal to the higher courts, in case they feel agrieved 
at the decision of the Superintendent : but those 
courts of appeal are "Special and Minor District 
Meetings ;" and who does not see from the constitu- 
tion of such meetings, — being composed of ministers — 



140 



tliat there is little hope of redress, as several cases have 
recently proved ? It cannot be expected that such 
courts will set aside the decisions of the minor ones, 
when the object of the preachers is, confessedly, to 
bring about the expulsion of the men appealing. It 
is something like a lamb applying to the wolf for the 
rescue of its dam. It would meet with a cruel recep- 
tion. The third part of this declaratory law of 1835 
relates to ** Meetings tor communication with the 
Conference by Memorial, on all subjects of local 
concern, or on the general laws of the connexion." 

The following remarks upon this part of the rule of 
1835, we copy from the " Wesleyan Times." 

" Our remarks will embrace : — 

I. " The time of holding the Circuit meetings. "5 

II. ** The persons who compose them. 

III. " The liberty which is given to those meetings. 

I. " The time of holding such meetings was very 
properly left by the law of rl797 to the exigence of 
the occasion. But not so the law of '35, which 
declares that such meeting shall be held " not less 
than seven days, and not exceeding ten days, from the 
time of the June quarterly meeting. 

"So that during the sittings of Conference, no 
meeting can be held to review its proceedings, or to 
remonstrate against its acts. If such a meeting should 
be held, it is pronounced illegal. 

II. " In the composition of the meeting there is as 



141 



fi^liiring a violation of the spirit and letter of the law 
of 1797. The original law excluded none who had a 
right to vote at a leaders' or quarterly meeting, except- 
ing the travelling preachers. These were not to bo 
present, only " the superintendent was permitted to be 
present, if he pleased. 

" It was by that law regarded emphatically a meeting 
of the people, and which was not to be unduly influ- 
enced by the presence of all the circuit preachers. 

" By the law of '35, we see all the preachers of the 
circuit, and all the supernumerary preachers, made 
members of it, while it excludes every class-leader, of 
less than tenyears^ continuous and uninterrupted stand- 
ing in that office. 

" In some circuits, half the leaders are by this law 
shut out. It also excludes every local preacher who 
has not been ten years continuously and uninterruptedly 
on the plan. It also allows only one steward from 
any country society ; and if the society has less than 
fifty members, the steward of that society is not a 
recognised member of the meeting. It, moreover, 
excludes nearly all the trustees of the country chapels, 
admitting but one from each. 

" What can be more arbitrary and unjust ? Not 
only is the bulk of the Wesleyan Societies excluded 
from taking part in the proceedings of a circuit 
meeting, but trustees, whose interests may be vitally 
affected by the measures of Conference, — leaders. 



142 



who know the views and feelings of their members, — 
and local preachers, who, from their general inter- 
course with the several societies in the circuit, are 
likely to be best informed on the state of general feeling. 
We see great cunning concealed under this elaborate 
enumeration of those who ma}'', and who may not 
attend a special circuit meeting. It is the act of 
persons full of fear and suspicion, and who have no 
confidence in the loyalty of the people I 

" But there is yet another part of this law of '35, 
making it still more exclusive, it is, * that the 
Superintendent shall always preside in the meeting, 
or in the case of his unavoidable absence, some other 
travelling preacher. 

" Whatever spark of freedom might yet linger in a 
circuit meeting from which so many of the leaders, 
trustees, and local preachers were excluded, this last 
arbitrary clause quite extinguishes. Who does not 
know how much a meeting is in the hands of its 
chairman ? He has the advantage of a first statement 
— the stopping of a speaker who may give utterance 
to unpalatable truths, — the power of refusing to put 
the resolution which he may conceive damaging to 
those against whose acts the meeting has been con- 
vened — and above all, should the meeting be firm, 
he has the power to dissolve it by quitting the chair. 
In a word, the law of * 35, which declares that a 
member of the Conference shall always preside at a 



143 

circuit meeting held for the redress of grievances, is, 
we are bold to say, one of the most despotic acts the 
Conference could commit ; and rendered infinitely 
worse by being introduced under the semblance of 
liberty. 

III. " The liberty possessed by the meeting is the 
next point for consideration. In the law of 1797, 
not one word is said about the way of getting up the 
memorial to Conference. But by the law of '35, 
not only must a memorial have the approval of the 
majority of the meeting, but * it shall be signed forth- 
with by the individuals who concur in its adoption, 
and then immediately/ placed in the hands of the 
superintendent, who is made responsible for its 
delivery." To give unfettered freedom of opinion 
the ballot has ever been resorted unto, that, in the 
fullest sense of the term, men might act for themselves. 
Here the very opposite course is adopted. Every 
individual who objects to the proceedings of Confer- 
ence, is to be unmistakably known, that he may be 
treated for the future as circumstances may 'render 
advisable. He is to be a marked man — to be avoided, 
or to be well looked after for the future — being pos- 
sessed of a spirit of independence which will need 
curbing and keeping down. An artful contrivance 
this, to get acquainted with all who oppose. Then 
come the conditions under which the meeting may 
jnemorialise the Conference ; they arc : — * Notice 



144 



in writing shall be given to the Superintendent at 
least three days before the day of meeting, of the 
precise subject on which it is intended to propose 
that any memorial shall be sent to the Conference, 
and no proposal of which such timely notice has not 
been given sliall^ be allowed to be brought forward 
that year.' Such are the conditions framed by 
Protestant pastors, to regulate the communications of 
their dear and beloved people with themselves ; and 
all this under the specious phraseology of brotherly 
love, parental solicitude, affection for, and confidence 
in, their dear and devoted societies. Did the world 
ever before exhibit such a spectacle ?" We have thus 
somewhat lengthily noticed the law of '35, because 
of its beuig the fruitful source of the miseries that 
now so oppressively afflict the Connexion. 

Passing on to the third resolution, it reiterates the 
sentiments of the second, only extending the privilege 
of memorial to Conference " on any subject whatever.'* 

The fourth resolution goes to confirm the powers 
of the " Deed Poll ;" but limiting it to its original 
provisio7is and numbers, thus rendering unnecessary 
the admission of lay-men into the Conference. The 
provisions of the "Poll Deed" have been before 
stated, and when confined exclusively to those 
"duties and requirements," and to the " legally con- 
stituted hundred," appointed originally, not by the 
suffrages of the brethren, but by seniority, it is 



145 



thought by most persons that, by the introduction of 
lay delegates into the Quarterly and District meetings, 
every security will be afforded against centralized 
pastoral power, and innovation on the peoples' rights. 
Lay delegation in the Conference, was a matter that 
engaged the most serious attention and deliberation 
of the meeting of delegates : but counsel's opinion 
having been taken upon the provisions of the " Deed 
Poll" and that opinion being unfavourable to the 
practicability or possibility of its being legall}' intro- 
duced, the matter was suffered to rest. But still Lay 
delegation is far from being abandoned. If not 
introduced into^Confercnce, it is to be introduced into 
the Quarterly and District meetings, in which courts its 
influence and workings, will be as efiiciently felt, as 
if introduced into Conference ; but which subject 
we shall more particularly enter upon, when remarking 
upon the resolution embodying it. 

ThQ fifth resolution is a very important one ; simple 
indeed in its provisions, but of the greatest conse- 
quence to the people. It provides for them the 
" franchise" in relation to the election of their own 
leaders and ofiice-bearers, than which nothing can be 
more Scriptural, or give greater security to the peace 
and harmony of the societies. That the societies 
should have a voice in the election of the men who, 
in a peculiar sense of the term, share in " the over- 
sight of the church" in mmistering from week to 



146 



•week spiritual food to the flock of Christ ; and who 
are called to " admonish, reprove, or exhort," as the 
case may be ; is surely a privilege that no one vyill 
think too much. To have forced upon them Officers 
and Leaders, the " nominees of the Superintendent," 
whose interest it is [to introduce men to office, who 
hold views approved of by the Conference, and who 
are not — being thus forced upon them — the repre- 
sentatives of the Societies, is a violation of all honesty 
and calculated to do much harm. Spiritually, it is 
their privilege, as it is also their interest to choose 
such men to office, under whose teachings they can 
receive the most useful and experimental information, 
and who in their judgment and experience are the 
most adapted to promote their spiritual advancement. 
Officially, they have the same right, in order that the 
men whom they choose may really be their represen- 
tatives, in those local courts where the affairs of the 
Connexion are, or may be, discussed. One tiling 
indeed has been overlooked in the representative 
system, sought to be introduced into the Quarterly 
and District meetings, and that is, that the Delegates 
attending the Quarterly and District meetings ought to 
be elected by the Society meetings. We find, however, 
in this respect what we think a defect in the Declaration 
of the Delegates, for according to that they are to be 
elected at the March Quarterly meetings, which Quar- 
terly meetings are composed of Leaders, Local preachers 



Ui 



and Stewards of the Societies, but " the multitude" is 
disfranchised. It is true the Leaders, &c., composing 
these meetings are to be elected by the societies, but 
still it is possible for the Quarterly meetings to elect 
delegates to the District meetings, who may not 
represent the views of the majority of the societies. 
This evil, however, would be prevented by the 
delegates being elected at a Society meeting, called 
for the purpose some short time previous to the 
District meeting. 

One thing we are sure of, that unless the constitution 
of the church is put upon as broad a basis as the 
New Testament Scriptures, and primitive usages 
admit, the People will not feel satisfied. In fact, the 
general constitution of society demands it. Politically 
and Ecclesiastically the suffrages of the People are 
undergoing great and almost unlimited extension, and 
unless the present reform movement keep pace with 
the times, and harmonize with the constitution of other 
churches, it will be far from satisfj'ing the people, and 
will only produce greater disaffection . We have heard 
abeady repeated complaints upon this point. What, 
it is asked, are the rights of the people which the 
Delegates wish to obtain for them ? It would be very 
well to give to this inquiry a full, clear, and definite 
answer, in order to silence the surmisings of some — 
even of the liberal men in the societies — who are 
pleased to say that, the present movement is a battle. 



148 



for mere power, between the Leaders and Local 
Preachers on the one part, and the Itinerant Prea- 
chers on the other. 

Resolution sixth proposes that the Leaders' meeting' 
should become what it ought to be — and what we 
verily believe John Wesley intended it should be — 
a court of appeal, or an ecclesiastical Jury, which 
according to the evidence produced, and the nature 
of the crime perpetrated, should determine the 
punishment merited b}'^ any delinquent. Modem 
Methodism has attempted to set this aside — to subvert 
the primitive design of these courts, and make them 
a mere cypher, — a nonentity in Methodism. The 
Superintendent now-a-days has all the power, he can 
expel for whatever cause he may think proper, irre- 
spective of the opinions of the Leaders, — a power 
which no one man [under heaven ought to possess. 
Such power is as injurious to the man who assumes 
it, as it is to the people over whom it is exercised. 
This resolution also provides a safeguard against an 
unjust or partial verdict, by giving to the accused and 
the accuser the right of appeal to a higher court, 
denominated the Quarterly Meeting, which being 
constituted of a due admixture of Office-bearers in the 
circuit, most of whom mustbe perfectly unacquainted 
with the case, before coming together, and being 
comparatively strangers to each other, will conse- 
quently be unprejudiced, and who will have the 



]49 



power to approve of, or annul tlie verdict of the 
Leaders' meeting ; and it also provides that the 
decision of this court shall be final. 

Resolution seventh states the constitution of such 
Quarterly meeting, giving to it greater powers tlian 
at present, and so intermixing with it all classes 
of OfFice-bcarers, as to give to its entire complexion 
a liberal tone. 

Resolution eighth provides for the constiiution of 
the District meeting, and with the exception of the 
one point before noticed in our remarks upon resolu- 
tion fifth, it is calculated to give satisfaction. Let the 
delegates to the District meeting be elected by the 
Society meetings, and these Courts will be put upon 
a basis, every way calculated to satisfy the most 
zealous advocate for the rights of the people. 

Resolution ninth provides as at present that the 
Superintendent preacher be the "chainnan of all 
meetings of the church," but with this important 
addandiis, that his absence or refusal to act shall not 
prevent or invaUdate the proceediDgs of such meet- 
ings ; but that in all such cases the meeting shall be 
at liberty to elect one of its own members to preside, 
but the chairman, whoever lie may be, to have only 
the casting vote. Any man at all conversant with 
the present constitution of the local courts of Metho- 
dism, must see the great importance of this resolution. 
Hitherto, the Superintendent, being chairman of the 
10 



150 



meeting, has in many instances, when percjeiving that 
the majority of the meeting were opposed to the 
measures he was anxious to introduce, vacated the 
chair, and dissolved the meeting ! Instances of this 
s jrt have not lately been rare ; especially with relation 
to the election of Stewards. The nominee of the 
Superintendent not being one whom the Leaders 
could conscientiously elect, in consequence of his 
holding principles adverse to reform measures and libe- 
ral polity ; the Superintendent sooner than nominate a 
man of the people's views, has left the chair, and 
dissolved the meeting, and thus has left the circuit 
without Stewards, which every one knows is an 
anomalous state of things in Methodism. In this 
resolution the recurrence of such evils is provided 
against. And moreover, a limitation is put upon tho 
power of the Superintendent in suffering him to have 
only one vote ; hitherto he has assumed the power of 
having two ; one as a member of the meeting, and 
the other as Chairman. 

Resolution tenth provides for the constitution of 
Connexional Committees, upon a much more liberal 
scale than has been obtained hitherto ; as those 
committees, as far as the Lay members of them are 
concerned, are invariably to be chosen by the mem- 
bers constituting the District meeting. Hitherto thei 
members of the Connexional Committees have been, 
in effect chosen by themselves, as the nominationlj 



151 



has generally rested in the hands of those few gentle- 
men, who rule the Conference at pleasure. 

Should the reforms now discussed be introduced, 
all those committees would be chosen by the District 
meetings. The other part of this resolution refers to 
Laymen being " Treasurers of all Connexional funds," 
thus providing a remedy for the spirit of Seculariza- 
tion in the ministry, and giving them full scope and 
liberty for the iminterrupted discharge of their sacred 
duties as pastors. 

Resolution eleventh relates to a Committee for 
guarding the rights and privileges of the people, 
**two to be appointed annually by the Laymen 
assembled in each District meeting." 

Resolution twelfth enforces the rescinding of all acts 
of discipline upon the Revs. Everett, Dmin, and 
Griffith, and all others, who, by sympathising with 
them, or taking part in the present reform movement, 
have been unjustly expelled from the Connexion. 
Upon this subject we conceive it our duty to make a 
few remarks. The reader, who has carefully perused 
the introduction to this book, will already be 
acquainted with the circumstances that led to the 
expulsion of the three ministers named, and therefore, 
it will be unnecessary to enter at large into them 
here. It is admitted by all parties — even by those 
who are opposed to their cases constituting an 
essential point in the protest or declaration, — that 



152 



they have been the subjects of a *' tyrannical," 
" oppressive," and " un-English" law ; that they have 
been the victims of injustice. This is corroborated 
too by the denunciation of the law of '35, under 
which they were expelled, and by the seeking of its 
total and immediate repeal. Still there are parties in 
the reform movement, who — though making these 
admissions — are adverse to the resolution seeking their 
restoration to the Conference and the Connexion, 
because, as they say, it will endanger the success 
of the reform movement. How such conclusions are 
arrived at, we are at a total loss to determine. If the 
success of a Reform movement is jeopardized by 
seeking restitution and justice for the victims of 
tyranny and oppression, that movement is, we fear, 
based upon a sandy foundation, and must be destitute 
of sound principles. In order, however, to clear up, 
as far as we are able, the principle involved in this 
resolution, we will consecutively take up the argu- 
ments advanced by one of the Manchester delegates 
in opposition to the measure. He was unable to 
support this resolution because the " Expelled could 
not consistently accept it, having denounced the 
Conference and the Law, of which they were the 
victims, as tyrannical and oppressive." True, they 
have done so, and still continue to do so, and in this 
they are supported by nearly the whole of the British 
press, nine-tenths of the denominations in Christendom, 



153 



aDd nineteen-twcntieths of the liberal party in the 
Methodist Connexion ; and if for having thus de- 
nounced unjust legislation, they cannot consistently 
** accept" restitution and justice, or again be asso- 
ciated with the body when reformed and purged of 
its un-Scriptural, and anti-English laws, no more can 
thousands who are now in communion with it, remain 
longer in its fellowship, or others who have also 
denounced existing evils seek admission into its pale, 
when the subjects of their malediction shall have been 
removed, and the objects of the present movement 
fully realized. If the reform measures advocated bj' 
the delegates be introduced into the polity of the 
Connexion — and unless they be so introduced, the 
resolution embodying the restoration under notice 
Vv'ill fall to the ground, along with all the rest — what 
obstacles will be in the way to their " accepting" of 
former status ? The evils of which the ejected ministers 
complain; the obnoxious, iniquitious, un-Scriptural,. 
and anti-English laws which they have so openly, 
righteously, and unmistakably denounced, will no 
longer exist ; and consequently their future course 
will then be clear, unimpeded and prosperous. Wliat 
a discredit it would be to the Reformers of Metho- 
dism, to dissociate from the movement, the very men 
who, in the providence of God, have been its origi- 
nators, and who are the most calculated to assist in 
carrying out its important principles .' 



154 



But the delegate, whose sentiments we are noticing, 
could not support the resolution, embracing the 
restoration of the expelled ministers " because it would 
be an insult to the Conference !" Verily this is 
strange logic, and the most astonishing inconsistency. 
What ; and for fear of giving insult in advocating, and 
even demanding justice, are we to suflPer the victims 
of cruelty and oppression to struggle alone and 
unaided ? An insult to the Conference to request it 
to make restitution for its injustice ! To undo what 
the laws of the British empire and common honesty — 
not to mention Scripture— ^brJac? to he done. An 
insult indeed ! If expediency and false delicacy are 
thus to bestrew the path of the Reformers of Con- 
ference Methodism, in ,their efforts to obtain redress 
of grievances and the repeal of obnoxious laws— cen- 
turies will pass over this world of ours, and each of 
those revolving centuries only add despotism to tyranny 
and cruelty to insult. What a laughable figure do 
such reformers present to the " clique" in the review 
of their sentiments. " These bold men are worthy of a 
niche in St. Paul's Cathedral. They have undertaken 
the reform of one of the greatest systems of conven- 
tionalism in England, and yet forsooth, they dare not 
press principles of justice from the fear of giving 
insult ! " Such puerile movements would be far from 
accomplishing any thing, and only make their 
advocates a laughing stock to the world. But ha 



155 



could not support th« resolution under review 
"because it was a separate question, from the prin- 
ciples and objects of the reform movement." Not so : 
in the first instance the reform movement had its 
origin in the expulsion of these ministers, for had 
they still retained their position in the Wesleyan 
Conference, and not become the victims of oppression 
and cruelty, the present movement would never have 
existed; but the despotism of Conference would 
have carried on its intrenching schemes, until the last 
vestige of Christian liberty had^been usurped for ever. 
We do not say that their long silence, and slumbering 
consciousness, of Conference innovation upon the 
people's liberties were justifiable. They ought long ago 
— irrespective of personal injury and sacrifice — to have 
come forth, and boldly and clearly have declared the 
grievances and domination which have so long existed; 
here they are blameable ; here they deserve censure ; 
but it is no use now to administer reproofs, the deed 
is done, and the people now have the opportunity of 
setting themselves right with the Conference. May 
they avail themselves of it ! Two distinct questions 
they cannot be, they are identical in principle, in 
character, and in consequences, both immediate and 
remote. What are the objects sought by the reform 
movement ? Why, emphatically to obtain justice, in 
the repeal of obnoxious laws ; the revision of Metho- 
dist polity ; the giving to it a constitutional, and a 



15G 



Scriptural basis ; the obtaining of Scriptural, civil 
and religious liberty. These are the objects profes- 
sedly sought by that movement, and in seeking them, 
shall the Wesleyan Reformers be so selfish, so sinister, 
as to overlook — in the eagerness to obtain personal 
redress — the injustice, the cruelty, the sufferings of 
the victims of the laws they are vyishful to repeal 1 
Perish such circumscribed philanthropy, such con- 
summate exclusiveness ! If the expelled Ministers 
arc not ^vo^thy of the resolution advocating their 
restoration, they are not worthy of the S3niipathies of 
the Wesleyan public. If it is just to bestow upon 
them the latter ; j)rinciple demands the putting forth 
of the former. Cut the resolution embracing the 
restoration of the Expelled out of the memorial ; 
identif}' it no longer |with the objects sought by the 
reform movement, and the principle of the whole is 
sacrificed ; the foundation is taken from under our 
feet, and we are left with a reform movement, the 
cause of which we have annihilated by one dash of 
the pen. But we are told " the demand for their 
restoration would be a stumbling-block in the way of 
reform." Indeed ! then the sooner the reform move- 
ment is abandoned the better. If demanding justice ; 
if seeking restitution to the victims of oppression and 
cruelty; if standing by the suffering and the forsaken, 
are stumbling-blocks, or in the least likely to damage 
or retard any movement, we fear the motives that 



157 



iufluence its movers, as well as the objects sought to 
be accomplislied, are alike questionable.' If justice is 
to be sacrificed at the shrine of expediency, or only 
to be a secondary consideration, little good may be 
expected from any measures likely to be introduced. 
But the objector could not support the resolution 
embracing the restoration of the Expelled ministers, 
"because' when they became Wesleyan Preachers 
they sacrificed part of their English liberty." Indeed ! 
what liberty did they sacrifice ? It is true that by the 
law of '35 it was sought to be wrested from them, 
but that law was never consented to by the parties in 
question, any more than by the Wesleyan public. 
And even if it had : if from considerations of depen- 
dence upon Conference for their sustenance — having 
from early life given themselves to the Christian 
ministry, and thus shut themselves out from obtaining 
a livelihood by ordmary pursuits — it was odious, it 
was an infringement upon Christian liberty, to force 
submission from the fear of pecuniary loss and sacri- 
fice. If such were the case it is infamous : a deed 
■worthy only the dark ages of Roman Catholicism, 
which forced men by persecution, by being stretched 
on the rack of the Inquisition, and by the confiscation 
of their estates, to succumb to the dominant hierarchy 
of the church. But what an argument for a reformer 
to advance : even if the Expelled had thus sacrificed 
part of their English liberty, or had voluntarily con- 



158 



scnted to the sacrifice, are we on that account to 
stultify ourselves. Tho slave, who in an evil hour 
had sold himself into bondage, may surely be allowed 
to repent of his rashness, and bemoan his folly ; and 
if circumstances permit, try to break asunder his 
fetters, and snuff again the free air of heaven and of 
liberty. But voluntarily consent to the sacrifice they— 
two out of the three at any rate — never did. It was 
sought to be imposed ; but on its being attempted 
they lifted up their voices against it, and when for 
the first time, the law that embodied it, was attempted 
to be put into practical operation, they denounced 
it as impious, for that they were expelled and 
became its victims, and were immolated at the shrine 
of wanton power. 

But when they became ministers what principles of 
liberty did they sacrifice? None. Two of them 
were ministers long before the present inquisitorial 
law was framed, or even contemplated. What were 
iht principles of liberty they sacrificed when they 
entered the ministry ? None : unless it is supposed 
that an acknowledgment of the right to inquire into 
ministerial fitness ; morality of character ; orthodoxy 
of doctrine, and knowledge of discipline, is a sacrifice 
of liberty. If so, they did : but other sacrifices they 
did not make, other conditions they did not subscribe. 
But he could not support the motion " because having 
passed a resolution repealing the law of '35, it would 



159 



not be right to pass another having a retrospective 
operation, that would undo acts done under law." 

The law of the Inquisition of Rome or Spain, which 
makes it obligatory upon all its victims, to answer any 
questions aflPecting the disposal or the investment of 
their property, is, according to this principle, never 
to be succeeded by another making restitution to the 
victims of its perfidy and sin. In case of the indi- 
vidual refusing to comply with this inquisitorial 
impost, he was istretched upon the rack, or torn by 
the saw, or lacerated by some other engine of torture. 
Must such a sufferer never expect redress 1 In the 
event of some providential circumstances and unfore- 
seen events occurring, to make it imperative on the 
" Vatican clique" to repeal such monstrous laws as 
those referred to, should we not hail the glorious 
determination of a priest-ridden people, rising en 
masse to assert their liberties ! 

In such a case, would it be wrong for the victims 
of past cruelty to demand restitution, or for the 
more liberal and Christian government to grant it? 
Would such a "retrospective operation of a new 
law undoing acts done under law," once the dis- 
grace, the curse, the eternal infamy of the age, have 
a prejudicial effect upon a reform movement in the 
Church of Rome ? Or would analogous doings dis- 
grace the Methodist Connexion, or the Wesleyan. 
Reform movement ? Would they in any way jeopar' 



160 



disc its interests, or be a " stumbling-block" in the 
way of its succcsful issue ? If they would wc confess 
we know little of the principles that ought ever to 
actuate a reform movement. But lastly he could not 
coincide with the resolution "because he did not 
tliink they could get it." Certainly this is a strange 
way of going about the all important business of 
R cform, either in church or state. If Martin Luther, 
when seeking the Reform of the Catholic Church in 
Germany, had made this his 'policy, or had he at the 
commencement of his work taken the probabilities into 
the account, he would have accomplished but little. 
Had the more modern reformer, John Wesley, 
adopted these principles of expediency — when, from 
the little town of Epworth, he set forth on his march 
through England, to rescue a corrupt church from 
total and everlasting apostacy — the present denomina- 
tion of Wesleyan Methodists would never have 
existed, and multitudes now in heaven, and multi- 
tudes more on their journey thither, would have been 
groaning in perdition, or slumbering in their sins. 
" Cannot get it !" What have we to do with that ? 
Our business is respectfully but boldly to demand it 
and leave the consequences with God. " Go thou thy 
way, until the end be ;" do thou thy part ; endea- i 
vour to reform those abuses which exist irrespective 
of consequences — consequences are things with which 
thou hast nothing to do — do thy part ; commit thyself 



ii 



IGl 



to tlic work from principle^ embody tliat principle 
in all thy eflPorts, and be the issue what it may, God 
will honour thy labour. 

In reference to the Expelled ministers, it is noto- 
rious throughout the world, that their expulson was 
considered to be unjust, inasmuch as there was the 
total absence of evidence to convict them of being 
the authors of the " Fly Sheets," to say nothing of 
the lack of witnesses to prove them guilty of any 
immorality, for which alone, on the Scriptural basis* 
expulsion from the pale of a Christian community, 
ought to be enforced. There is one other subject to 
^vhich we wish to call attention, before we close our 
remarks on the Expelled mmisters, and that is, the 
blame that is sought to be attached to them for 
publicly declaring their grievances, and manfully 
inveighing against their excision from the Conference 
and the Connexion. Upon this particular topic we 
cannot do better than quote the observations that 
were made at a public meeting of the Expelled, at 
Liskeard, by the Rev. W. Morsheab, formerly a 
minister of the Church of England, but now an 
Independent pastor. 

" It has been said," observed the rev. gentleman, 
" tliat if these ministers have suffered wrong, they 
oii2:l!t to bear it in silence, — they ought not to resist 
evil. But I maintain that the Christian duties of this 
high class, however beautiful in themselves, and 



162 



obligatory as before the Lord, can never be enforced 
by man. They do not enter into the consideration 
of any dispute between man and man. Have I a 
right to smite a man on one cheek, and then require 
him to turn the other ? — to attack a traveller on the 
road, rob him of his coat, and then demand as a 
right that he shall give me his cloak also ? Certainly 
not. If these gentlemen choose to suffer in silence, 
let them ; but if they claim to be heard, they have a 
right to be heard ; their non-resistance to evil is a 
question entirely between themselves and the Lord. 
" But again, the only clear cases for non-resistance 
to evil, are those which involve only personal suffer- 
ing ; where character, especially ministerial character, 
is concerned, other elements enter the question, and, 
in many cases, so entirely alter it, as to make resist- 
ance to evil a positive duty. And consider the 
stigma affixed to the characters of these ministers. 
Expulsion from a religious^body is the heaviest penalty 
man can inflict on man. An expelled man is an 
outcast. I should refuse myself to acknowledge 
such, unless I knew that he had been expelled 
unjustly. Are those who pass this sentence, and who 
now call upon the condemned to submit in silence, 
aware of the character of their own act ? I under- 
stand, from a statement of their principles, sent to 
me a few days since, that they claim the keys of the 
Kingdom of Heaven. If so, they must believe that 



163 



what they bind on earth is bound in Heaven. Do 
they really mean that these ministers are excommu- 
nicated for ever from the Kingdom of Heaten ? That 
•when a Superintendent cooly draws his pen through 
an individuals name, that act is immediately ratified 
above, and a pen drawn through the name as it stands 
recorded in the Book of Life ? This is a serious claim. 
The Scriptures never delegate.to man the awful power 
of cuttinsr off for ever his fellow-man from the Kinar- 
dom of God, both in this world, and in the world to 
come. Such power, if in existence now, must be 
based on some new Revelation, must contemplate 
some new form of guilt. For every one in the dark 
catalogue of sins enumerated in Scripture, there is 
forbearance, and admonition, and hope ; for opposi- 
tion to the Wesleyan Conference it seems their is 
neither ! 

But I am applying this to the question of character. 
Can we, then, expect these gentlemen to remain silent 
under the stigma employed in the very act of expulsion, 
that of having committed some aggravated crime? 
Are they to bear through life the brand of unrepented 
guilt ; thus bringing disgrace on the name of Christ, 
and laying the axe to the root of their ministerial 
work? We should remember that what goes forth 
to the world is not the internal disputes of the 
Conference, but the outward and visible act of expul- 
sion. That is the voice which speaks through the 



KA 



country ; and to all who read their Bibles, it speak« 
of guilt — aggravated and unrcpented guilt. Now, 
these ministers have been labouring for 3'ears, and 
judging from the apparent age of the Rev. Gentleman 
present this evening, and knowing the itinerating 
system of Methodism, I should suppose there were 
hundreds, probably thousands, in the country who 
have hitherto respected him as a minister, perhaps 
hundreds who first received the word of life from his 
lips. And is he to suffer their faith to be periled ? 
For we who preach the Gospel know that, however 
wrong it may be, yet, as a matter of fact, many do 
depend on their minister, and his apostacy shakes 
their faith to its foundations. I have no hesitation in 
saying, although no one can advocate the practice 
, of these high doctrines more than I do, that in the 
present instance, and. on the supposition that these 
gentlemen are innocent of any great moral crime, it 
is not only proper, but even a positive and paramount 
duty, that they should come forward and clear 
themselves." 

Having made these observations upon the resolu- 
tions, we shall now hasten to a close by a few remarks 
upon their Scriptural character : for it is to the credit 
of the delegate meeting, that its members did not 
seek precedents in other^churchcs, on which to base 
the polity and discipline of the reformed Methodist 
Church : but confined themselves exclusively to tlie 



ICo 



New Testament Scriptures and apostolic times. 
Building upon such a foundation, there can be little 
fear of going -wrong, and from such an eminence they 
can bid defiance to their most deadly enemies, who 
brand them as red-republicans, gladiators, socialists, 
chartists, conspirators, and the like. Enemies to 
religion and to Metliodism they are not, but the 
humble conservators of New Testament polity and 
discipline. 

It is no where to be found in the New Testament 
Scriptures, or in the records of apostolic times, that 
the ministry had absolute power in legislating for the 
Church, but that the laity took a very prominent part 
in all its affairs, both legislative and disciplinary. In 
this it differed from all former dispensations, which 
partook of the character of a Theocracy. The intro- 
duction of the Christian reUgion was to be based on 
the same essential principles ; but rendered capable 
of admitting an equality in the church not before 
witnessed. Moses, as the representative of the Jewish 
dispensation, had given to him as a leader and a 
ruler, powers never possessed by man before, and 
which powers, we think, the Almighty will never 
again bestow on man, to the end of time. With the 
passing away of that dispensation, and the ushering 
in of the last, and more perfect one, the Lord Jesus 
Christ took upon himself the offices of Prophet, Priest 
and King. HE is, therefore, the sole Ruler, the sole 
11 



160 



Legislator, the only one Great Head of the Church, 
and the section that admits any other authority, even 
in an accommodated sense, so far reflects upon his 
prerogative, and in a measure denies the suflficiency 
of the New Testament Scriptures, as the sole rule and 
guide of the church. The love of undue power, and 
hurtful domination, is inherent in the heart of man, 
co-eval with his fall in Paradise, and will, we fear, be 
co-existent with the unsubdued nature of Adam's race. 
Our blessed Lord, had no sooner announced to his 
disciples his approaching departure, than the contest 
for power began, " for by the way they had been 
talking who should be greatest." Our blessed 
Saviour, however, admonished them that Leadership, 
and human authority in the church were no longer 
permitted, but " he who would be greatest should 
be servant of all." The second century, however, 
had scarcely been commenced when human power 
and usurped authority, began to be introduced. 
Then began the apostacy. Acknowledj^ing more 
than ONE Head, losing the primitive simplicity, 
oneness, and unity of the first Christians, who, in the 
emphatic sense " had all things in common," they 
substituted human authorit}^ for scriptural com- 
mands, and hence, the Church became corrupted in 
doctrine, in discipline, and in practice. " The church, at 
its origin," writes Daubigne, " was a people composed 
of brethren. The epistles which then decided 



167 



important questions, did not bear the pompous name 
of man, as chief, but, as the Holy Scriptures inform 
us, run simply thus : * The apostles, elders, and 
brethren, to the brethren.' But even the writing's of 
tlie apostles inform us that, there should arise a power 
which would subvert this primitive order." And so it 
is, and so it has been from that day to this. Having- 
in a former part of this book animadverted upon the 
un-Scrpturalness of the Wesleyan Conference consti- 
tuting itself the sole legislative bod}- of the Connexion, 
we hasten to notice the Scripturalness of all Leaders 
and Office-bearers being chosen by the vote of the 
church. In the case of the apostate Judas ; his 
successor to the ministry was elected, not by the 
suffrages of the apostles, or the elders or deacons, but 
by the whole church, " who gave forth their lots, and 
the lot fell upon Matthias." (Acts, i. 26. v.) 
In reference to the Grecian members of the church 
at Jerusalem, who complained of the neglect shown 
to their widows in the daily ministration, the twelve 
apostles called the multitude of the disciples unto 
them, and said, " It is not reason that we should leave 
the word of God, and serve tables. Wherefore, 
bretliren, look ye out seven men of honest report, 
full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may 
appoint over this business. But we will give ourselves 
continually to prayer. And the saying pleased the 
whole multitude : and they chosa Stephen, a^man full 



1G8 



of faith and the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and 
Prochoras, and Nicanor, and Tiraon, and Parmenas, 
and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch : whom they set 
before the apostles : and when they had prayed, they 
laid their hands on them." Even when two celebrated 
men were to be elected as missionaries, it was to the 
assembled members of the church, that the Holy 
Ghost gave the commission, to separate Paul and 
Barnabas to the work — the apostles, in this case, were 
not the only persons to whom God spake. And on 
the return of these missionaries to Antioch, " they 
called together the whole church, and rehearsed all 
that God had done by them." 

On the important question of circumcision that arose 
in the church at Antioch, in consequence of some 
brethren from Judea stating that, without it they 
could not be saved. The church elected Paul and 
Barnabas, and certain others of them to go as a 
deputation to Jerusalem, and " when they were come 
to Jerusalem, they were received of the churchy and of 
the apostles and elders, and after much debate and 
consultation upon this matter, it pleased the apostles 
and elders, with the whole church to send chosen men 
of their own compani/ to Antioch with Paul and 
Barnabas ; namely Judas surnamed Barsabas, and 
Silas, chief men among the brethren. And they wrote 
letters by them after this manner ; The apostles and 
elders, and brethren, send greeting unto the brethren, 
&c. &c." 



169 



Apollos, the most eloquent preacher in Apostolic 
times, was instructed by Aquila and Priscilla in the 
" way more perfectly," and by them recommended to 
the brethren in Achaia, and by those brethren received 
and accepted. 

From the foregoing remarks it is evident that the 
constitution of the primitive church was upon the 
liberal principle, that all who were accredited mem- 
bers of its communion, were pennitted to have a voice 
in the management of its affairs, and a departure 
from this simple and primitive custom, only opened 
the avenues to hierarchical domination, and priestly 
tyranny. It is to bring back to first principles, to 
restore modern Christianity to its original and broad 
platform of universal equality of brotherhood and 
privilege, that the Reformers of the Methodist church 
are aiming. This is their object, and in attempting 
it, they are sincere in their motives and designs. 
That it must come to this, before either Methodism, 
or any other ism in Christendom, can fully and 
harmoniously carry out the designs of the Founder of 
Christianity, is a matter too notorious to need demon- 
strative proof. It is one of those self-evident principles, 
that carry with them their own convictions. The 
Great Head of the church ; the constitution of human 
society, civil and ecclesiastical, — and the general 
progress of the times alike demand it--" What" asks Dr. 
Dixon, "has ecclesiastical and hierarchical chris- 



170 



tianlty done for the world in ancient times ? It has 
put its trammels upon the simple, primitive, personal 
piety and usefulness, which had been produced from 
time to time, by the pure Gospel, and reduced the so 
called church to the condition of one mighty con- 
glomerated mass of stupid ignorance and vice ; then, 
seizing the reins of political power, has entwined 
itself parasitically around the institutions of society, 
and reduced the world to the dominion of a politico- 
religious despotism." But on such a platform it 
must never again exist, for writes the same author 
" The people, who are now every where claiming for 
themselves the privilege of choosing their own 
temporal rulers, are not likely, for any length of time, 
to allow the extraneous appointment of religious 
governors. The public will claim for itself the right 
of giving its suffrages in matters ecclesiastical. Tiiis 
principle, indeed, is already powerfully at work. 
Either a pure voluntaryism, or else nationalism, which 
is only voluntaryism in a national form, as seems from 
the tendencies of events, must predominate. Indeed 
institutions of every kind seem destined to be con- 
trolled by the public voice." 

In the accomplishment of these purposes it will 
require a struggle, whether they are sought to be intro- 
duced in civil or ecclesiastical jurisprudence. The 
PeopUy who have generally been looked upon as the 
mere mstruments of national wealth, or the passive 



171 



agents of clerical aggrandizement, can never reclaim 
their rights of independency and moral freedom, but 
by a united and vigorous effort. The exercise of power 
and domination in ecclesiastical constitutions, by the 
ruling few, will not be passively resigned. They will 
hold it with a tenacious grasp, and nothing but stringent 
measures and determined effort will wrest from the 
hands of despotism, the sword it has long wielded. 
But let only union and co-operation, characterise every 
measure and movement, and success is sure, for 
despotism must fall before the will and demands of a 
united people. The history of the last few years in 
reference to the Continent of France, is full of instruc- 
tion and warning, to all despotic governments, 
whether civil or ecclesiastical. The following senti- 
ments we quote from a modern writer : — " Led on by 
a blinded ambition, and a haughty love of domination, 
Louis Philippe attempted to tax the liberties of his 
people, in the right of publicly expressing their 
grievancies'; forbade their assembling and discussion 
of civil jurisprudence, and determined to put down 
free inquiry. But it was the climax of his love of 
absolute sway. That one step involved him in inex- 
tricable difficulties ; he fled from his palace, a solitary 
and forlorn wanderer, hunted and hooted by an 
incensed and grossly insulted people — an exile in a 
foreign land. It must needs be so, it is no new 
feature in the history of civil jurisprudence. It is the 



172 



natural consequence to be looked for in all despotic 
governments, when the public sentiment and feeling 
can once gain an inlet into the pent-up systems of 
tyrants. It is only nature working out her own evolu- 
tions, and bringing to one common centre the approxi- 
mations of every age and country under the canopy of 
heaven. The same tragedy will be exhibited in all 
like systems, whenever an opportunity offers itself, or 
circumstances concur to warrant the putting forth of 
energy, to demand redress. The reign of despotism, 
"v\ hether political or ecclesiastical, is at best but a 
tenure of dubious and short duration. Its foundations 
are on the sand. It is only by a small preponderance 
of power, that the balance is at all maintained. One 
small additional influx of public sentiment and public 
feeling to nerve the arm of usurped liberty and right, 
and the governments of all despotic constitutions are 
levelled in the dust — the wreck of fallen greatness, 
and ambitious folly. So ecclesiastically as well as 
politically will be its doom. As in the exiled 
monarch of France, despotism worked its own 
destruction — applied the torch to the elements of its 
own constitution — so also in the case of the apostate 
church of Rome ; her apostacy from^ God — from the 
spirituality of her worship, and the saving character 
of her doctrine, — were the results flowing from 
priestly tyranny, and papal usurpation. She may 
and does exist as a constitution, the " external embodi- 



173 



ment" may be there, but it is the mere wreck of a sj'stem 
once replete with the saving- elements of vital Chris- 
tianity. They have exchanged the kernel for the 
crust, the jewel for the casket, the substance for the 
mere shadow, * having the form of Godliness, but 
destitute of the power.' What beacons are these to 
warn all subsequent rulers, of all systems, of the 
impolicy of despotism, in attempting to tax the 
liberties and rights of the people, or stem the current 
of public opinion.'* 

" How little," writes Dr. Dixon, " did John Calvin 
tliink of the egg he was hatching when, in his quiet 
study, in the little city of Geneva, he first broached 
the doctrine that it was lawful for Christians, under 
certain circumstances, to resist their rulers. This 
thunderbolt of John Calvin is the power which has 
shaken the world ever since ; and it is that which is 
heard in the world at the present moment. Right or 
wrong, it is religion, that is, the dogma of a religious 
man, which has worked all the revolutions of the 
world." And who can question the right of the 
people to interfere, or to revolutionise^ (if the term be 
more appropriate,) when the system under which they 
exist is sought to be constituted into a political 
despotism, or a clerical domination. Can it be 
expected that the people will quietly submit to have 
their rights torn from them, by the aggrandizing spirit 
of a dominant few, and be by them reduced to a 



174 



state of religious serfdom. Never ! Religion itself 
— though advocating every reasonable concession to 
the governing power, — and the leading of a quiet and 
peaceable life, — never, for one moment, enjoins the 
sacrifice of personal liberty, or the succumbing to the 
dominant hierarchies of the church. When rights 
are invaded, and civil and religious 'privileges sought 
to be taxed, there is no law, human or divine, that 
can righteously prohibit the protest of the people. It 
is just, that they should stand in defence of their 
common rights, and, if need be, resist even unto death, 
innovation upon their liberties. And are the Metho- 
dist people doing more than their duty, in the present 
struggle for religious liberty? Let Christendom 
answer, and the reply is, as if blending in the voice 
of one man, NO. It is true, the Reformers of Metho- 
dism are undergoing the ordeal of fire, in the shape 
of persecution ; their characters are slandered, 
and sinister designs sought to be attached to their 
efforts : but this is nothing new, it is the common 
feature ever attending reform movements, and instead 
of deteriorating, will only add an impetus to the 
struggle. Pity that the mere expression of sentiment 
in reference to the executive of a system, and the 
effort to regain liberties — lost by oppression, and 
wrested by the cunning craft of designing men, from 
the too confiding and credulous, — should be the 
signal for the iron hand of unrelenting persecution. 



175 



to attempt to tarnish and blight the good name and 
character of the members of the Church of Christ. 
Yet so it is. To eye with haughty disdain ; to point 
with the finger of scorn, and to weigh down with the 
wrongs of the oppressor, those, who, perchance, may 
differ in mere matters of opinion, or unimportant 
formula, is indeed a maUcious pleasure, but it is the 
pleasure — if pleasure it be — of many who are bowing 
the knee to the hierarchies of the Methodist Church. 

Persecution dare not, it is true, rear its head, or 
show its hideous deformity, as it had wont to do ; 
the fell pursuer of another, a supposed enemy, or a 
suspected brother, or a deemed rival, or a superior in 
mind and talent — though, may be, not in station or 
office — envied for his superior attainments, or hated 
for his conscientious opposition to anti-Scriptural 
proceedings, he is followed by the whisperings of 
malicious backbiting, and the cruel and relentless 
breath of smothered or half-uttered suspicion. 
Persecution dare not now entomb the living in the 
prison-house of the dead ; dare not drag to the stakes 
of dishonoured Smithfield the objects of its hate, as 
in years that are gone. It is true, the rack, the 
harrow, the saw, the concealed trap, the poisoned 
chalice, are abandoned ? Science and the arts have 
been, in days past, refined to devilish experiment : 
nature itself has been ransacked, and from her womb ; 
and from her surface ; and from her etherial properties ; 



176 



have been produced substances and instruments to 
make [the ig-norant superstitious, the innocent and 
confiding a prey, and man, the noblest work of the 
Divine Being, a tortured, miserable wretch. Is per- 
secution extinct ? What means then that averted 
eye, that scornful look, that disdainful behaviour, 
that distant carriage, that forbidding silence, that 
refined inuendo, that every thing, which the heart, in 
its foulness, can engender ; and the eyes in their 
truthfulness betray, but which the lips dare not speak, 
for ver}' cowardliness ? Is a man right in condemning 
where he only suspects, or in punishing where envy 
is the basis, and hatred the superstructure? Are 
condemnation and punishment not practiced even in 
the absence of proof, or established guilt ? Was not 
this the case in the Manchester Conference of 1849, 
and has it not been the case since, in many instances, 
in the minor courts of Methodism ? Let the hundreds 
of sufiering victims, who are cast upon the wide 
world — the sport of despotism, and the prey of 
tyranny — answer. These men are wandering " as 
sheep without a shepherd." Driven from the pale of 
the church—the church of their fathers— as unworthy of 
its communion, they are seeking shelter in other folds. 
Some we fear — and whilst we write it, *we weep — 
will not avail themselves of such means for keeping 
alive the spark of heavenly fire, but loiter so long by 
the way side, as to lose all relish for spiritual things, 



1' 



and ultimately become the prey of apostacy and mln. 
Who will bear the burden of all this ? Upon the skirts 
of whose garments will the blood of theSfe victims fall ? 
"Woe be unto the pastors that destroy and scatter the 
sheep of my pasture ! saith the Lord. Tlierefore, thus 
saith the Lord God of Israel, against the pastors that 
feed my people ; ye have scattered my flock, and 
driven them away,and have not visited them : behold 
I will visit upon you the evil of your doings, saith the 
Lord." 



U4 



LIST OF DELEGATES'. 



Name. Office. Years In Society. 

ALFORD/ 
Morton, Wm Local preacher and trustee 31 

ALTRINCHAM. 

Mollyneux, B. Member 6 

ANCESTER. 
Flatby, J Leader, local preacher, and trustee 14 

ASHBOURNE. 
Baker — 

Smith, Thomas .... Trustee aiid local preacher '^^'i 

Tomlinson, John .. Trustee, leader, and local preacher .... 30 

ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH. 

Page. Richard Leader and local preacher 12 

Stiuson, W Leader, local preacher and steward .... — 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE. 

Peacock, T Circuit steward and leadei — 

Thompson, George.. Leader, local preacher, and trustee — 

Vaughan, James — 

AXMINSTER. 

Keeping, Richard .. Local preacher, leader and trustee.... 26 
Upright, E Local preacher, and leader ,.. 20 

BAKEWELL. 

Furnace, L Leader, local preacher, and trustee .... 30 

Trethewy, S Local preacher 38 

BATH. 

Bell, W Steward and trustee 37 

Freeman, W Steward, trustee, leader, and local 

preacher 22 

Luckman, C Leader, local preacher, and trustee .... 29 

BLYTH. 

Fairman, R Local preacher 14 

Patterson, R Local preacher, trustee, and leader. ... 15 



179 



Name. Office. ^ "i ears in Society. 

BELPER. 

Bourne, Joseph .... Trustee, and circuit steward ; — 

Gamble, T Leader, local preacher, and trustee 20 

Palmer, Joseph Trustee, leader, and local preacher .... 24 

Summersides, T Trustee, society steward, and local 

preacher 20 

Parker Local preacher, trustee, and leader .... 25 

BIRMINGHAM. 

Cope, E Trustee, local preacher, and leader. ... 18 

Clive, W Leader and trustee 34 

Fage, D Leader and trustee IS 

Jurraan, R Leader 18 

Turner, R Leader 17 

Wattoa.W 21 

BLACKBURN. 

Openshaw, Leader — 

Samuel, J. P Trustee 13 

BOLTON. 

BrierclifFe, T. ........ Local preacher and trustee 20 

Harrison, Robert Local preacher 12 

BOSTON. 

Gibson, William Leader 24 

Popple, Samuel Local preacher and trustee 18 

BRADFORD (East.) 

Butler, Joseph Trustee and leader 35 

Bottomley, M Leader 11 

Potter Leader 11 

BRADFORD (West.) 

Foster, John Local preacher and leader 16 

Savage, W Local preacher 14 

BRISTOL. 

Birkby, John Local preacher, leader, and trustee 25 

Copp, J Leader, trustee, and treasurer to Chil- 
dren's Fund 35 

Carter, James Chapel steward and trustee 14 

Lawes, H. F Leader, trustee, and chapol steward .. 25 

Phillips, J. ., Circuit steward and trustee 27 

Phillips, W Leader, trustee, and Mis. treasurer.. .. — 

Reynolds, S Chapel steward 9 

Taylor, James Local preacher and trustee 35 

Underwood, J. W, . . . Trustee, leader, and local preacher. ... 33 

BURTON-ON-TRENT. 

Lowe, Thomas Leader and local preacher 22 

Mills, R Local preaclier and trustee 34 

WattoD, Thomas Leader and local preacher ...t 26 



180 



Name. Offiee. Years in Society. 

BUNGAY. 

Baker, William Leader and local preacher 33 

BURY ST. EDMUNDS. 

Burwood, Thomas. .. . Leader and trustee 24 

Gillin^ham, B Local preacher and lead(>r 27 

Nunn, F Local preacher and Sunday-school su- 
perintendent 6 

CAMBRIDGE. 

Barton, John Local preacher 15 

Lyon. J Chapel steward 20 

Ybungman, R Trustee and leader 25 

CARLISLE. 

Parker Local preacher, trustee, and leader .. 12 

CARDIFF. 
Andrews, D Local preacher, leader, trustee, and 

secretary of Sunday school 17 

Wilkins, George Society steward and trustee .. 18 

CASTLE DONNINGTON. 

Earp, J Leader and local preacher 14 

Sheppard, T Leader, trustee, and local preacher 32 

CHELTENHAM. 

Bell, W. B Leader, trustee, and Sunday-school 

tract secretary 19 

Russell, James Local preacher, trustee, and leader.. .. 16 

CHESTERFIELD. 

Cutts, John Leader, local preacher, and trustee. ... 35 

Dawes, P Leader, local preacher, trustee, and 

society steward 40 

Duttoa, W. E Local preacher and trustee 17 

CLECKHEATON. 

Harrison, Joseph .. .. Ex-circuit steward, leader, trustee, 

and chapel steward 17 

Wood, Wm Leader and local preacher 14 

COVENTRY. 
Deacon, J Circuit steward, leader, and local 

preacher 17 

Francis, Joseph Trustee 27 

CROMFORD. 

Pottle, Henry Local preacher and trustee 38 

DEPTFORD. 

Briggs, Willham Trustee 16 

Warren, T Local preacher and Wader 25 

Taylor, Joseph Steward, trustee, and local preacher .. 17 



J8l 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

DERBY. 

Gamble, — Local preacher 9 

Jeffrey, — Leader and trustee — 

Shilcock, — Steward — 

Woolhouse, — Local preacher — 

DEVIZES. 

Rritton, M Local preacher 40 

Dowse, George Circuit steward 3J 

DISS. 

Aldrich, R.,jun Local preacher and trustee 12 

Whitehead, R Leader, local preacher and trustee ... . 38 

Warne, H Trustee 38 

DOVER. 

Richardson, John Local preacher, trustee, and treasurer. 28 

Rees, R Local preacher and society steward — 

DOWNEND. 

Ettle, J Leader, steward, and trustee 82 

Hicks, J Society steward, leader, and superin- 
tendent of Sunday-school 27 

DOWNHAM. 

Flatman, John Leader, trustee, and local preacher.. .. 28 

Woolraer, D Local preacher, trustee, and leader.. .. 38 

DURHAM. 

Bramwell, John Trustee — 

DURSLEY 

Hoiloway, S Ex-circuit steward, leader, and trustee 25 

Jones, Joseph Local preacher — 

Pinnegar — Leader — 

EXETER. 

Hirst, John Leader 47 

FAVERSHAM. 

Read, J. S Local preacher, leader, steward, and 

trustee 27 

FRAMLINGHAM. 

Larner, James Local preacher ". IS 

Robinson, William .. Local preacher, treasurer, trustee, and 

circuit steward 15 

FROME. 

Lawrence, — Local preacher •. 18 

White, John Trustee 18 

12 



182 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

GLOUCESTER. 

Higgs, Chp.rles ...... Local preacher, trustee, leader, and 

chapel steward 20 

Thurston, John Local preacher and leader 30 

GRANTHAM. 

King, Samuel Leader, trustee, and ex-circuit steward 39 

Rogers, John Trustee, leader, and Sunday -shool su- 
perintendent 46 

Ward, William Leader and trustee 37 

GREAT HORTON. 

Harkor, Joseph Local preacher and trustee 40 

Myers, John Local preacher and trustee 8 

Thomas, W Leader, trustee, &c 21 

HALIFAX. 

Dodgson, James Local preacher and leader 45 

Jackson, John Leader and trustee .30 

Shaw, T. Local preacher and trustee 28 

HAMMERSMITH. 

Slade, T 30 

Firth, George — 

Lovely, R Local preacher 18 

White, Richard Leader 15 

HEXHAM. 

Smith, Rohert Local preacher and trustee 45 

Smith, William Leader and local preacher 25 

HIGH WYCOMBE. 

Garland, T Local preacher and leader 10 

Snell, John Local preacher, leader, and society 

steward 16 

HITCHIN. 

Little, Joseph Local preacher 15 

HOLT. 

Hardy, W. H. C Treasurer of Children's Fund for the 

district and trustee 25 

Hill, Joseph Circuit steward, local preacher, leader, 

and trustee 30 

Colman, Joseph Circuit steward, local preacher, and 

trustee 31 

Massingham, H. A. .. Local preacher and trustee 18 

HOLMFIRTH 

Barber, F Leader and trustee 30 

Cuttle, Joseph Chapel steward and trustee 30 

HOUGHTON-LE-SPRING. 

Bolam, J Local preacher 6 



188 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

HUDDERSFIELD (1st). 

Kaye, Joshua Leader and trustee 34 

Mailinson, G Leader, local preacher, and trustee 42 

HUDDERSFIELD (2nd). 

Roberts Trustee 17 

Taylor, John Leader and trustee lo 

ILKESTON. 

Carrier, H Trustee and leader 50 

Hirst T Leader, trustee, local preacher, chapel 

steward, ex-circuit steward, and Sun- 
day-school superintendent 44 

Orchard. J Trustee and local preacher 'i4 

Oldhara, Jas Trustee, leader, and local preacher 23 

IPSWICH. 

Moor, D Local preacher 12 

Treity, William Circuit steward, trustee, leader, and 

local preacher Ifi 

Smith, T Trustee and leader 33 

Thrower, II Leader, local preacher, and trustee 25 

KENDA.L. 

Bond, T Ex-circuit steward and missionary 

secretary 9 

Raine, M Local preacher, trustee, &c 21 

KINGSWOOD. 

Lewton, George Trustee, leader, and local preacher 30 

Thompson, G Teacher, leader, and local preacher 33 

KNARESBOROUGH. 

Crake.J 3 

LEAMINGTON. 

Coleson, R Local preacher and leader 20 

Heritage, W Local preacher 13 

LEDBURY. 

Broad, J Trustee 45 

Hart, Joseph Circuit steward and trustee 15 

Goold, A , Circuit steward and trustee '^0 

LEEDS. 

Booth, J :.... Local preacher, lender, and trustee 35 

Clifton, J Trustee and local preacher -0 

Carr, S Trustee and leader 20 

Edwards, W Leader 20 

Robinson, J. B Local preacher 23 

Rayner, John Trustee and leader 44 

Lister, James Leader 32 

Thompson, M Trustee and leader 25 



184 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

LEICESTER. 

Brierley, J Local preacher and trustee 24 

Burton", — Leader 20 

Long, M. A Local preacher and trustee 30 

Flattery, James Local preacher, leader, and trustee.... 41 

LEIGHTON BUZZARD. 

Price, R Leader, local preacher, society steward 

and trustee 15 

Walters, Thomas Trustee, superintendent, and treasurer 

of Sunday-school 25 

LEYTON ESSEX. 

Leigh, J. W Missionary treasurer 13 

Marshall, Wm Local preacher, leader, missionary 

secretary and trustee 14 

Martin, Noah Local preacher and trustee 12 

Wilson, M. C Leader and society steward 12 

Witmore, John Leader and trustee. 32 

LINCOLN. 

Argyll, B Local preacher, leader, and trustee.... 28 

Blyton, G Leader, trustee, and local preacher.. .. 35 

Bulman, R Local preacher 19 

Godson, T Local preacher and leader 15 

May field, T Local preacher and trustee 20 

LIVERPOOL. 

Burrows, J Local preacher and leader 36 

Byrom, W Local preacher, trustee, and leader. .. 20 

Smith, John Ex-circuit steward, and Missionary 

secretary 8 

Riley, Thomas Trustee, leader, and local preacher. ... 27 

LONDON.— First Circuit. 

Aldrich, Edward Trustee : — 

Minson, William Trustee — 

Pigg, Henry Leader and local preacher 21 

Snape — Leader and local preacher 10 

Stevens Local preacher — 

Volckman Circuit auditor — 

Williams, John Leader and Sunday-school secretary.. 20 

LONDON.— Second Circuit. 

Child, Joseph Leader and trustee 17 

Nicholls, James Local preacher 24 

Oats, Joseph Trustee and Leader 42 

LONDON.— Third Circuit. 

Biddle, G Trustee, leader, and local preacher.... — 

Baldwin, W Trustee — 

Chipchase, Joseph.... Trustee, leader, and local preacher.. .. 25 
Day, J. B Trustee 50 



186 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

LONDON.— Third Circuit. (Continued.) 

Gandy, W Local preacher, leader, and trustee. ... 28 

Garbult 15 

Hunt, Thomas Trustee and local preacher \5 

Kny, Hildreth Trustee 15 

Raymond W Society and chapel steward 36 

Volckman, C. Local preacher ^..,. — 

LONDON.— Fourth Circuit. 

Broad, Stephen Trustee 30 

Bussell, J. H Ex. local preacher 20 

Chaplin, H Trustee 16 

Godfrey, F Leader and trustee 20 

M orris, Hugh Local preacher 33 

Parker, P Local preacher and leader 28 

LONDON.— Fifth Circuit. 

Batten, J Leader 40. 

Eason, J Leader and local preacher 12 

Richnrds, T Trustee 20 

Bolton. P Sunday school secretary 11 

Burt. W. C School superintendent, , 15 

Ralibitfs, Trustee 10 

Rabbitts.E.H 16 

LONDON.— Sixth Circuit. 

Dunsford — 

Grosjean, F Local preacher and trustee — 

Hanson, W Local preacher — 

Nodes, J Society steward, trustee, leader, and 

Sunday school secretary — 

Prolhero Local preacher and trustee 30 

Sarvant, G Local preacher 12 

LONDON.— Seventh Circuit. 

Archbutt, S Trustee 10 

Cuthbertson, J Leader and trustee 30 

Potter, Samuel Local preacher, trustee and leader .... 22 

Carter, John Leader and trustee 15 

LONDON.— Eighth Circuit. 

Dresser, C Local preacher and leader 21 

Honor, W. Thomas .. Leader 23 

Harrison, John Local preacher 18 

OxIpv, Doctor W.... Trustee — 

Tuffipld, T Trustee 37 

Volckman, F Trustee 14 

LONGTON. 

Shaw , John Local preacher and trustee 40 



186 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

LOUGHBOROUGH. 

Crcswcll.G Trustee 20 

.Tarrett, J Leader and local preacher 30 

Peck, Robert, sen... . Trustee, leader and local preacher .. .. 47 

Tomlinson, C Circuit steward, trustee and leader .... 26 

LOUTH. 

Boothby, H.J Leader, trustee and missionary secre- 
tary 23 

Foster, .Tohn Leader, trustee and steward 33 

Alroyd. W. H Local preacher 21 

Kirkby, James Leader, trustee and steward 30 

Sooby 10 

Shaw, T Local preacher 40 

LUTON. 

Higs^ins, W. H Trustee 25 

Jordan, John Trustee - • 25 

LYNN. 

Bootraan, C Local preacher and leader 23 

Birchara, R Local preacher and leader 30 

Fysh.J.L Local preacher «... 10 

Johnson, W Leader and local preacher 33 

Keed, John Leader and local preacher 21 

Wright, G Local preacher 43 

MALTON. 

Creyke, T Local preacher, steward and trustee .. 27 

Watson, T Local preacher, leader and trustee ... . 20 

MANCHESTER. 

Browne, J. F Local preacher — 

Hardman, Richard .. Leader 6 

Martin, William Local preacher 16 

Taylor, James Local preacher 23 

MANSFIELD. 

Linfoot, B Leader and poor steward 16 

Street, John Local preacher and leader 14 

MARKET-HARBOROUGH. 

Collier, W Local preacher and trustee 21 

Moore, H. W Local preacher, trustee and circuit 

steward 12 

Wilford, J... .,, Local preacher and trustee 13 

MARKET-RASEN. 

Hodson, B Local preacher 20 

Taylor, George Leader and trustee 25 

MIDDLESBOROUGH. 

Chapman, George .... Trustee 20 



187 



Name. Office. Years in Society. 

I MIDSOMER-NORTON. 

Enkley, G Leader and trustee 31 

Emery, F Local preacher and steward 12 

NEW BUCKENHAM. 

Rpse, James Circuit steward and local preacher., .. 20 

Youngman, J Trustee] 8 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 

Benson, John Trustee and leader 15 

Pattinson, Robert Trustee and local preacher 25 

Rea5% John Trustee and leader 44 

Stanley, Robert S Trustee, leader and local preacher. ... 46 

NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE. 

Lawton, M Local preacher, leader and trustee .... 25 

NEWPORT.— Motis. 

Cole, John Local preacher, leader, and Sunday 

school superintendent 13 

Powell, W Local preacner and leader 20 

NORTH WALSH AM. 

Bircham, William .... Leader, trustee and local preacher 39 

Palmer, James Local preacher and trustee — 

NORTH SHIELDS. 

Embleton, William .. Local preacher and leader 10 

Harcus, J Leader 16 

NORWICH. 

Clarke, James Chapel steward, trustse, local preacher 

and leader 19 

Massingham, J District missionaiy treasurer, local 

preacher, leader and trustee 18 

Ford, William Local preacher, trustee and circuit 

steward 35 

Stocks, A. J Circuit steward and trustee 14 

NOTTINGHAM. 

Bell, W Ten years school superintendent.., .. 2-2 

Crawshaw, J Trustee , — 

Elliott, T Leader, trustee and ex-circuit steward 14 

Goodacre, R Leader and trustee 13 

Williams, James Leader and trustee, and ex-circuit 

steward 26 

Simpson, T School superintendent 14 

Wilson, A 10 

Wain, Trustee 17 

OTLEY. . 

Fox, John Leader and trustee 17 

Sugden, Leader 39 



1^8 



Name. Office Years in Society. 

OXFORD. 

Bartlett, Wra Leader and ex-local preacher 34 

Banbury, George .... Leader, local preacher and trustee... 17 

Goold, James Ex-local preacher 12 

Leggatt, William Leader, local preacher and trustee. . . . 30 

PETERBOROUGH. 

Hastings, J. W Local preacher, trustee and leader ... . 46 

Holditch, James .... Local preacher 20 

King, Henry Local preacher, leader and steward.. .. 31 

Palmer, William .... Circuit steward, local preacher and 

leader 29 

READING. 

Herbert, Thomas .... Local preacher, leader and trustee .... 10 
Milson,J Local preacher and society steward .. 12 

RETFORD. 

Crump, H , Leader, local preacher and school su- 
perintendent 35 

Metcalf, A Local preacher and trustee 16 

Stocks, Thomas Trustee and leader 57 

RIPLEY. 

Brentnall, J Leader, trustee and chapel steward .. 24 

Cowley, Jesse Local preacher 13 

Mart, B Local preacher, trustee, leader and 

steward 10 

Rowland, G Local preacher..... 12 

ROCHDALE. 

Barker, Christopher.. Circuit steward 10 

Dickin, Local preacher and trustee 11 

Masken, Thomas .... Local preacher, leader and trustee.... 15 

ROCHESTER. 

Bartholomew, Steward and trustee 40 

Baker, J. A Steward, trustee, leader and local 

preacher 18 

Crockford, William . . Missionary treasurer and trustee — 

ROMFORD. 

Homestead, J Local preacher, steward and trustee . . 43 

RYE. 

Parsons, ' Local preacher and trustee 14 

SAINT COLUMB. 

Hawke, Local preacher and trustee 20 

SALISBURY. 

Gregory, G Ex-circuit steward and trustee 34 

Kent, Thomas Leader, local preacher and trustee .... 20 

Miell, Thomas Leader and missionary secretary 4 



189 



Name. Office. Years in Sociefy- 

' SHEERNESg. 

Skej', Edward Local preacher 3.3 

SHEFFIELD. 

Howarth.J Local preacher, leader and trustee ... . 24 

Ibbitt.W 26 

Marrinson, J Local pi'eacher and leader 19 

Sharmaii, J Local preacher and trustee 30 

Schofield, Local preacher and trustee 37 

Sanderson Local preacher, trustee and leader .. .. 40 

Woodcock, George .. Steward and trustee 26 

SHOTLEY BRIDGE. 

Moodj', John Local preacher and trustee 33 

SOUTH PETHERTON. 

Taylor. W. M Local preacher, circuit steward, &c. . . 17 

Morris, H Local preacher, leader, trustee and 

society steward 37 

SOUTHPORT. 

<Tri?p;, J Local preacher and trustee 2 

Hodge, Local preacher and trustee 27 

SOUTH SHIELDS. 

Armstrong, John .... Local preacher and leader 30 

Rep.y, Thomas Trustee 40 

SPALDING. 

Bycroft, R Local preacher, trustee and leader .... 28 

Hardy, T Local preacher 10 

Moore, John Leader and trustee JJ5 

Todd, James Trustee and Sundaj- school secretary. . 14 

Ward, William Local preacher, trustee and circuit 

steward 35 

SUNDERLAND. 

Calvert, W, jun Local preacher, leader and trustee 20 

Calvert, J. W Local preacher and trustee 19 

Forster,John Ex-society steward 12 

Muschamp, W Local preacher and leader 22 

Stokoe, James Trustee, local preacher and leader .... 15 

Mather, G Trustee and society steward — 

SWAFFHAM. 
Bird, John Ex-circuit steward, leader, local prea- 
cher and trustee 41 

Hardy. B Local preacher and trustee 18 

Love, Joshua Ex. circuit steward, leader and local 

preacher l'^' 



100 



Name. OfiSce. Years In Socielv- 

SWANSEA. 

Davidson, B Trustee and leader 25 

Garrett, George 14 

Ivey, J. P Local preacher 12 

WAKEFIELD. 

Harrison, G.W Leader and trustee 20 

Ilalstead, John Leader and trustee 27 

WALSINGHAM. 
Burrell, D Leader and trustee 24 

WELLINGBOROUGH. 

Blott, William Cireuit steward 15 

Stevens, William .... Trustee and chapel steward 11 

Beal, John Leader and superintendent of Sunday 

school 10 

WEST BROMWICH. 

Cotton, William Leader, Local preacher and trustee.... 21 

Silvester, Leader, trustee and day school trea- 
surer * 21 

WISBEACH. 

Coodacre, J Leader, local preacher and trustee ... . 31 

Tay'.or, J Local preacher and leader 15 

Lehair, J Society steward y 

WOOLWICH. 

Drake, H Local preacher 12 

Press, J Local preacher 20 

WREXHAM. 

Bolt, W^ Local preacher and leader 7 

Jones, W Leader, trustee and steward 25 

Morgan, J Trustee and local preacher 10 

YARMOUTH. 

Barber, C Treasurer of Trustees 24 

Lawn, James Leader, local preacher and trustee 33 

YORK. 

Coultas, John Local preacher and trustee 24 

MonkbouKP, T Leader and trustee 28 

Taylor, John Leader, local preacher and trustee 52 



T. JOHNSON, PBINTKK, i,lVESKV-b X'KEKT, M AXCllliSTIlK. 



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